The partial opiate-receptor agonist buprenorphine has been suggested for treatment of heroin dependence, but there are few long-term and placebo-controlled studies of its effectiveness. We aimed to assess the 1-year efficacy of buprenorphine in combination with intensive psychosocial therapy for treatment of heroin dependence.
40 individuals aged older than 20 years, who met DSM-IV criteria for opiate dependence for at least 1 year, but did not fulfil Swedish legal criteria for methadone maintenance treatment were randomly allocated either to daily buprenorphine (fixed dose 16 mg sublingually for 12 months; supervised daily administration for a least 6 months, possible take-home doses thereafter) or a tapered 6 day regimen of buprenorphine, thereafter followed by placebo. All patients participated in cognitive-behavioural group therapy to prevent relapse, received weekly individual counselling sessions, and submitted thrice weekly supervised urine samples for analysis to detect illicit drug use. Our primary endpoint was 1-year retention in treatment and analysis was by intention to treat.
1-year retention in treatment was 75% and 0% in the buprenorphine and placebo groups, respectively (p=0.0001; risk ratio 58.7 [95% CI 7.4-467.4]). Urine screens were about 75% negative for illicit opiates, central stimulants, cannabinoids, and benzodiazepines in the patients remaining in treatment.
The combination of buprenorphine and intensive psychosocial treatment is safe and highly efficacious, and should be added to the treatment options available for individuals who are dependent on heroin.
Comment In: Lancet. 2003 May 31;361(9372):1907; author reply 1907-812788596
Comment In: Lancet. 2003 Feb 22;361(9358):634-512606172
Comment In: Lancet. 2003 May 31;361(9372):1906-7; author reply 1907-812788595
To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission.
We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary (n = 126) group as to psychopathology and functioning using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scales at baseline, after 3 months and at 2 year follow-up. Moreover, duration of supportive psychotherapy, medication and number of hospitalisations during the 2 years were measured.
More women than men were admitted involuntarily. Voluntary patients had less psychopathology and better functioning than involuntary patients at baseline. No significant difference as to duration of psychotherapy and medication between groups was found. No significant difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up.
Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome.
BACKGROUNDS. A focus on psychiatric rehabilitation in order to support recovery among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) has been given great attention in research and mental health policy, but less impact on clinical practice. Despite the potential impact of psychiatric rehabilitation on health and wellbeing, there is a lack of research regarding the model called the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach from Boston University (BPR).
The aim was to investigate the outcome of the BPR intervention regarding changes in life situation, use of healthcare services, quality of life, health, psychosocial functioning and empowerment.
The study has a prospective longitudinal design and the setting was seven mental health services who worked with the BPR in the county of Halland in Sweden. In total, 71 clients completed the assessment at baseline and of these 49 completed the 2-year follow-up assessments.
The most significant finding was an improved psychosocial functioning at the follow-up assessment. Furthermore, 65% of the clients reported that they had mainly or almost completely achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals at the 2-year follow-up. There were significant differences with regard to health, empowerment, quality of life and psychosocial functioning for those who reported that they had mainly/completely had achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals compared to those who reported that they only had to a small extent or not at all reached their goals.
Our results indicate that the BPR approach has impact on clients' health, empowerment, quality of life and in particular concerning psychosocial functioning.
This article describes the management of an extensive case of sexual abuse in a small Norwegian community. The victims were adult men who had been exploited in childhood and adolescence by the same abuser. A demand for support was addressed to the health services when these men realised as adults that they shared this experience. The community health service and the psychiatric department decided to arrange psycho-educative meetings in the community centre. Victims, their families and local professional helpers were invited. The meetings gave general information about sexual abuse, early and late symptoms and the treatment facilities available locally. In one facility a psychiatrist and a general practitioner led a treatment group together. Five of the victims took part in this group. Fortunately, this case never reached the public press. Cooperation between specialist and community health services in managing such cases is regarded as essential.
Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten-session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6 months compared to baseline: a 49% reduction in health anxiety (Whiteley-7 Index), a 47% decrease in emotional distress (SCL-8), and a 40% decrease in somatic symptoms (SCL-90R Somatization Subscale). The patients' emotional representations and perception of the consequences of their illness (IPQ) improved significantly, and 87% of the patients were very or extremely satisfied with the treatment.
This project studies the effect of group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) following Attention Bias Modification (ABM) on residual symptoms in recurrent depression. ACT is a cognitive-behavioral intervention combining acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior-change processes. ACT enjoys modest empirical support in treating depression and has also shown promising results in secondary prevention of depression. The experimental cognitive bias modification (ABM) procedure has been shown to reduce surrogate markers of depression vulnerability in patients in remission from depression. The aim of the current project is to investigate if the effect of group-based ACT on reducing residual depressive symptoms can be enhanced by preceding it with ABM. Also, assessment of the relationship between conceptually relevant therapeutic processes and outcome will be investigated.
An invitation to participate in this project was extended to 120 individuals within a larger sample who had just completed a separate randomized, multisite, clinical trial (referred to hereafter as Phase 1) in which they received either ABM (n = 60) or a control condition without bias modification (n = 60). This larger Phase-1 sample consisted of 220 persons with a history of at least two episodes of major depression who were currently in remission or not fulfilling the criteria of major depression. After its inclusion, Phase-1 participants from the Sørlandet site (n = 120) were also recruited for this study in which they received an 8-week group-based ACT intervention. Measures will be taken immediately after Phase 1, 1 month, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year after the conclusion of Phase 1.
This study sequentially combines acceptable, nondrug interventions from neuropsychology and cognitive-behavioral psychology in treating residual symptoms in depression. The results will provide information about the effectiveness of treatment and on mechanisms and processes of change that may be valuable in understanding and further developing ABM and ACT, combined and alone.
ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02648165 . Registered on 6 January 2016.
The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the clinical pattern of 14 youths with presenting suicidality, to describe an integrative treatment approach, and to estimate therapy effectiveness. Fourteen patients aged 10 to 18 years from a child and adolescent outpatient clinic in Stockholm were followed in a case series. The patients were treated with active multimodal psychotherapy. This consisted of mood charting by mood-maps, psycho-education, wellbeing practice and trauma resolution. Active techniques were psychodrama and body-mind focused techniques including eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. The patients were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment and at 22 months post treatment with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. The clinical pattern of the group was observed. After treatment there was a significant change towards normality in the Global Assessment of Functioning scale both immediately post-treatment and at 22 months. A clinical pattern, post trauma suicidal reaction, was observed with a combination of suicidality, insomnia, bodily symptoms and disturbed mood regulation. We conclude that in the post trauma reaction suicidality might be a presenting symptom in young people. Despite the shortcomings of a case series the results of this study suggest that a mood-map-based multimodal treatment approach with active techniques might be of value in the treatment of children and youth with suicidality.
This study examined activities related to the provision of psychosocial care by counsellors in the hospice/palliative care setting. A qualitative design using written reports was used in an urban Canadian hospice/palliative care program. A convenient sample of 13 counsellors indicated the activities they typically performed in their work with patients and families. Thematic analysis of the activities directly related to patient and family care was performed and then validated by presenting these activities back to the counsellors in a group setting. Seven themes resulted: 1) companioning; 2) psychosocial assessment, planning, and evaluation; 3) counselling interventions; 4) facilitation and advocacy; 5) patient and family education; 6) consultation and reporting; and 7) team support. These thematic findings confirmed those of previous studies and also highlighted two additional findings. Team support was seen as an activity that directly affected client care, and there was a strong emphasis on the activity of companioning the dying and their families. Also discussed are implications of these results, as well as suggestions for further research.