In order to determine the residents' perceptions toward their psychotherapy training, a questionnaire was distributed to 400 residents in the 16 Canadian psychiatric residency programs. The main areas studied were: the resident's demographic and educational characteristics; the residency program characteristics; the type of training available in different psychotherapeutic modalities; the analysis of quality and quantity of attention given to different elements of psychotherapy supervision (patient assessment, diagnostic formulation of treatment approach and goals); the degree of importance attributed by the residents to the above mentioned elements of psychotherapy supervision; and the residents' perception of their supervisor's attributes (examples: teaching ability and rapport). Forty-two percent of the residents completed the questionnaire. Residents mentioned that the most adequate supervision was for long-term individual psychotherapy cases and that behavioral and group therapy supervision was the least adequate. The three most essential qualities in a supervisor's profile were judged to be: capacity for the development of a good rapport with the trainee; ability to pinpoint residents' psychotherapy shortcomings and his willingness to help residents to overcome them; ability to teach. Three factors that significantly influenced the trainees perception of their psychotherapy training were: resident's age, a seminar in individual psychotherapy in the residency core program; having received more than one hour weekly of psychotherapy supervision. The understanding of patient's psychodynamics was the most adequately taught element during psychotherapy supervision.
Imagining future success can sometimes enhance people's motivation to achieve it. This article examines a phenomenological aspect of positive mental imagery--the visual perspective adopted--that may moderate its motivational impact. The authors hypothesize that people feel more motivated to succeed on a future task when they visualize its successful completion from a third-person rather than a first-person perspective. Actions viewed from the third-person perspective are generally construed at a relatively high level of abstraction--in a manner that highlights their larger meaning and significance--which should heighten their motivational impact. Three studies in the domain of academic motivation support this reasoning. Students experience a greater increase in achievement motivation when they imagine their successful task completion from a third-rather than a first-person perspective. Moreover, mediational analyses reveal that third-person imagery boosts motivation by prompting students to construe their success abstractly and to perceive it as important.
Across various social cognitive theories, behavioral intention is broadly argued to be the most proximal and important predictor of behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton, & Russell, 1998; Rogers, 1983). It seems probable that an intention to increase behavior might be differentially determined from an intention to maintain behavior. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) the change in two types of behavioral intention over time and (2) the relationship between intention and the social-cognitive factor mental imagery. Behavioral intention, exercise imagery, and observed exercise behavior was measured in 68 exercise initiates participating in a 12-week exercise program. Results revealed that behavioral intention to increase exercise behavior decreased over the exercise program, whereas intentions to maintain exercise behavior increased. Appearance and technique imagery were found to be significant predictors of intention to increase behavior during the first 6 weeks of the program, and only appearance imagery predicted intention to maintain exercise behavior during the last 6 weeks. These findings suggest that the two types of behavioral intention are distinguishable and may be useful targets for exercise behavior interventions.
To investigate the determinants of the therapeutic working relationship and better understand its intrapersonal and interpersonal nature, this study investigated therapist characteristics as predictors of the formation and development of patient-rated and therapist-rated working alliances within a clinical trial of short-term versus long-term therapies. Short-term (solution-focused and short-term psychodynamic) and long-term (long-term psychodynamic therapy and psychoanalysis) therapies were provided by 70 volunteering, experienced therapists to 333 patients suffering from depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Therapists' professional and personal characteristics, measured prior to the start of the treatments, were assessed with the comprehensive self-report instrument, Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire. The Working Alliance Inventory was rated by both therapists and patients at the third session and at the 7?months' follow-up point from the initiation of therapy. Therapists' self-rated basic interpersonal skills were found to predict the formation of better patient-rated alliances in both short-term and long-term therapies. Engaging, encouraging relational style fostered improvement of patients' working alliances especially in the course of short-term therapies. However, it led to patient alliance deterioration in long-term therapies, where constructive coping techniques proved more beneficial. Therapists' professional self-confidence and work enjoyment, along with their self-experiences in personal life, consistently predicted their alliances, but were less salient for patient ratings of alliance. The divergence of therapist and patient viewpoints has implications for therapist training and supervision, as characteristics found detrimental or helpful for the working relationship rated from the perspective of one party may not be predictive of the other therapy participant's experience.
The present study reports on the findings of a Canadian survey of group therapists. The survey was conducted to solicit their perspectives of psychotherapy research. The goal of the survey was to identify topics and issues that were important to group therapists. Findings from the survey suggest that group therapists are interested in research, perhaps more than one might expect. However, respondents identified a number of factors that limit the appeal of research or impede the integration of research findings into practice. Several suggestions were offered for future research and for methods of communicating the findings of research to clinicians. The survey findings call for improved communication and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in order to achieve a more meaningful integration of science and practice in the group therapy field.
The study aimed to describe the postgraduate training of the general practitioners (GPs) in communication and psychiatric counselling.
GPs in Aarhus County, Denmark, received a mailed questionnaire about psychiatric hospital training, participation in courses and Balint groups (psychiatric supervision), and their need for further training.
The questionnaire was returned by 320 (74.4%) GPs. Almost all GPs had received some kind of postgraduate training although to a very varying extent. Almost half had taken courses of more than three days' duration, and half were members of a psychiatric supervision group. Two-thirds of the GPs thought they needed further training. The need was independent of the GP's evaluation of his/her own psychiatric education.
To explore Canadian psychiatry residents' perceptions of their psychotherapy training and identify factors that may influence decisions to practise psychotherapy after graduation.
We surveyed psychiatry residents at all training sites across Canada, using a self-report questionnaire.
The response rate was 63%. Of the respondents, 68% indicated that the prospect of learning and practising psychotherapy was a factor in their decisions to become psychiatrists, and 87% considered their ability to practise psychotherapy to be important to their identities as psychiatrists. The majority of residents (71%) were generally satisfied with their psychotherapy training. Among the graduating class of residents, 84% anticipate practising psychotherapy in some capacity. Satisfaction with their overall training experience and supervision and feeling competent to perform psychotherapy were significantly associated with their decisions to practise psychotherapy after graduation.
Most psychiatry residents currently enrolled in postgraduate training programs across Canada view psychotherapy as having an important role in the way they anticipate practising psychiatry.
The aim of this article is to present the qualitative focus group interview as a useful method of evaluating psycho- and milieu therapeutic treatment.
We conducted two focus group interviews with former inpatients of a psychiatric ward specialising in group therapy. To enhance the quality of the data by triangulation, the staff, representing both milieu- and psychotherapists, were also interviewed.
Analysis of the results revealed the following dominant themes: The continuation of the treatment was jeopardised by the existence of a welcome group. There was a need for further information as soon as the patient came into contact with the hospital. Moreover, an earlier and increased involvement of the family was required. After their own interview, the staff participated in deciding which results should lead to alterations in treatment procedures, thereby becoming involved in implementing the results.
The focus group interview is a valuable method of evaluating psycho- and milieu therapeutic treatment. Interviewing the staff served as triangulation and eased the implementation of the results remarkably.