Monitoring of ongoing psychotherapy is of crucial importance in improving the quality of mental health care by detecting therapies being off track, which requires that the instrument used is psychometrically sound. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45) and situates the results in an international context.
Data from one non-clinical sample (N = 338) and one clinical sample (N = 560) were compared to international samples investigating reliability, cut-offs, and factor structure.
The results show adequate reliability and concurrent validity.
The means, clinical cut-offs, and the reliable change index vary across countries. However, the means of the OQ-45 for nonclinical samples correlate highly with external values of national well-being, indicating that the OQ-45 is a valid instrument internationally. The factor analyses in the present study do not confirm the hypothesized factor structure of the OQ-45, but are similar to the results internationally.
OBJECTIVE: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment, and the place of CSA in therapy is still under debate. METHOD: 112 women, who were treated with outpatient psychotherapy by female therapists for anxiety disorders and/or depression were included. CSA had been admitted at the start of treatment start in 56 women, while no CSA was admitted among the 56 women of the comparison group. Systematic and detailed retrospective information about childhood as well as data on current functioning and current mental disorders were collected by questionnaires and structured interviews done by an independent female psychiatrist. RESULTS: The women of the CSA group reported significantly more FBRF than the comparisons. CSA increased the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), non-suicidal self-inflicted harm, and rape after 16 years. Major depression, dysthymia, and their comorbidity were not associated with CSA. The five indicators of quality of current intimate relationship were not associated with CSA. CONCLUSIONS: Women with CSA who have been treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression, also frequently have been exposed to FBRF. Increased risk for PTSD, self-inflicted harm before therapy, and rape after 16 years of age was influenced by CSA, while mood disorders and the quality of current attachment are not associated with CSA, but with FBRF or other factors not examined in this study.
Knowledge about important factors in reduction of burnout is needed, but there is a dearth of burnout intervention program studies and their effects among physicians. The present three-year follow-up study aimed to investigate the roles of coping strategies, job stress and personality traits in burnout reduction after a counselling intervention for distressed physicians.
227 physicians who attended a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana, Norway in 2003-2005, were followed with self-report assessments at baseline, one-year, and three-year follow-up. Main outcome measures were emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout), job stress, coping strategies and neuroticism. Changes in these measures were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. Temporal relationships between changes were examined using structural modelling with cross-lagged and synchronous panel models.
184 physicians (81%, 83 men, 101 women) completed the three-year follow-up assessment. Significantly reduced levels of emotional exhaustion, job stress, and emotion-focused coping strategies from baseline to one year after the intervention, were maintained at three-year follow-up.Panel modelling indicated that changes in emotion-focused coping (z = 4.05, p
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It has been claimed that the monitoring of ongoing psychotherapy is of crucial importance for improving the quality of mental health care. This study investigated the effect of using the Norwegian version of the patient feedback system OQ-Analyst using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2. Patients from six psychiatric clinics in Southern Norway (N = 259) were randomized to feedback (FB) or no feedback (NFB). The main effect of feedback was statistical significant (p = .027), corroborating the hypothesis that feedback would improve the quality of services, although the size of the effect was small to moderate (d = 0.32). The benefits of feedback have to be considered against the costs of implementation.
Burnout and mental distress in working doctors increase the risk for both suboptimal treatment of patients and negative health consequences for the doctors. Doctors have low rates of sickness absence and are reluctant to seek help, especially for mental distress. We examined whether a spell of sickness absence after a counselling intervention could predict reduction in emotional exhaustion among doctors at work 3 years later.
A 3-year follow up after a counselling intervention for burnout at the Resource Centre Villa Sana in Norway in 2003-05 was completed by 184/227 doctors. Self-report assessments were administered at baseline, 1-, and 3-years. The effect of number of weeks of sickness absence on reduction in emotional exhaustion among doctors working 3 years after the intervention was assessed by linear regression.
Of the 184 doctors completing assessment, 149 were working at 3-year follow up. Emotional exhaustion (scale 1-5) was significantly reduced at follow up (from 3.00±0.96 to 2.37±0.79, p
The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition dependent personality disorder (DPD) prototype with special reference to possible bidimensionality.
The sample included 1078 patients, 81% (n = 875) had 1 or more personality disorders. The proportion of patients with DPD was 11.3% (n = 122). Frequency distribution, chi2, correlations, reliability statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed.
Of the DPD criteria, criterion 3 showed a higher correlation with avoidant personality disorder than with DPD itself, whereas criterion 5 was weakly correlated with DPD, findings being confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis and a low internal consistency of all DPD criteria. An a priori hypothesized 2-factor model was confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis.
These results indicate a moderate to low quality of the DPD construct. The main objection is that DPD is based too heavily on a bidimensional model of perceived incompetence and dysfunctional attachment. Items should be revised, in particular, items 3 and 5.
PURPOSE: This study from Norway examines mental health status of women with child sexual abuse (CSA) who formerly had outpatient psychotherapy for anxiety disorders and/or depression. The relative contributions of CSA and other family background risk factors (FBRF) to aspects of mental health status are also explored. SUBJECTS: At a mean of 5.1 years after outpatient psychotherapy, 56 female outpatients with CSA and 56 without CSA were personally examined by an independent female psychiatrist. Systematic information about current mental health and functioning was collected by structured interview and questionnaires. RESULTS: Among women with CSA 95% had a mental disorder, 50% had PTSD, and mean global assessment of functioning (GAF) score was 61.8+/-10.6. In contrast, 70% of women without CSA had a mental disorder, 14% had PTSD, and mean GAF 71.2 + 8.5. GAF and trauma scale scores were mainly determined by CSA, while FBRF mainly influenced the global psychopathology and dissociation scores. DISCUSSION: We have little knowledge on the mental health status at long-term in women with CSA who had psychotherapy. This study found their mental status to be rather poor, and worse than that of women without CSA who had psychotherapy for the same disorders. From the broad spectrum of mental disorders associated with CSA, this study concerns only women treated as outpatients for anxiety disorders and/or non-psychotic depressions. CONCLUSION: Women with CSA showed poor mental health at long-term follow-up after treatment. The fitness of the psychodynamic individual psychotherapy given, or to what extent treatment can remedy the consequences of such childhood adversities, is discussed.
The aim was to study whether patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and co-occurring Cluster C traits would respond differently regarding change in interpersonal problems as part of their personality functioning when receiving two different treatment modalities. Two cohorts of patients were followed through three months' in-patient treatment programs and assessed at follow-up one year after end of treatment. The one cohort comprised 18 patients treated with "treatment as usual" according to psychodynamic principles, the second comprised 24 patients treated in a cognitive agoraphobia and schema-focused therapy program. Patients in the cognitive condition showed greater improvement in interpersonal problems than patients in the treatment as usual condition. Although this quasi-experimental study has serious limitations, the results may indicate that agoraphobic patients with Cluster C traits should be treated in cognitive agoraphobia and schema-focused programs rather than in psychodynamic treatment as usual programs in order to reduce their level of interpersonal problems.
The aim of this paper was twofold: namely to examine current intimate relationships and social status of women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in the long term after outpatient psychotherapy, and to investigate the relative influence of CSA and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the indicators of this status. Fifty-six women with reported CSA and 56 without CSA, who had outpatient psychotherapy for anxiety disorders and/or depression, were personally examined 5 years after termination. Women with CSA had considerably greater sexual and mental health problems, but the same prevalence of partnerships, children and friends as the contrast. No differences were observed as to self-esteem, intimate bonds and physical quality of life. Sexual problems and low education were mainly explained by CSA, other measures by FBRF. Women treated with outpatient psychotherapy for anxiety disorders and depression had moderate problems at long-term follow-up, but more so for those women who had been exposed to CSA.
Burnout among nurses is an issue of concern, and preventive interventions are important to implement and evaluate. This study investigated levels and predictors of change in burnout dimensions after an intervention for help-seeking nurses.
Nurses participating in a self-referral, counseling intervention, from 2004 to 2006 in Norway, were followed with self-reporting assessments. One-year follow-up was completed by 160/172 (93%, 155 women and 5 men).
Mean level of emotional exhaustion (one dimension of burnout, scale 1-5) was significantly reduced from 2.87 (SD 0.79) to 2.52 (SD 0.8), t=5.3, p