OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency and predictors of good outcome for patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). METHOD: We conducted a 2-year follow-up of a cohort of patients (n = 547) with first-episode SSD. We evaluated the patients on demographic variables, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), premorbid functioning, psychotic and negative symptoms, substance abuse, adherence to medication, and service use. ORs were calculated with logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients (67%) participated in the follow-up interview. After 2 years, 36% remitted and 17% were considered fully recovered. Full recovery was associated with shorter DUP, better premorbid adjustment, fewer negative symptoms at baseline, no substance abuse at baseline, and adherence to medication and OPUS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictive factors were identified, and focus should be on potentially malleable predictors of outcome, for example, reducing DUP and paying special attention to patients who are unlikely to achieve good outcome, for example, patients with a substance abuse problem and poor premorbid adjustment.
AIM: To investigate the frequency of the Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms (FRSs) in a representative group of patients with first-episode schizophrenia and to analyse the predictive value of these symptoms in relation to psychopathology, work situation, depression, dependency and admission after 2 years of treatment. METHOD: 547 patients were included in the Danish OPUS trial. A subgroup of these, namely the 388 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia (ICD-10), was included in this study. Data from SCAN interviews were used to describe the frequency of the different first rank symptoms and to compare the characteristics of the patients with and without FRSs. RESULTS: FRSs were very common among these patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Only 16% reported no FRSs at all. Almost half of the patients had experienced commenting or discussing voices, and more than 40% had experienced loud thoughts. More patients with than without FRSs had some kind of substance abuse. FRSs at baseline did not predict the level of scores in the psychotic, negative or disorganized dimension after 2 years. Having FRSs at baseline was related to a significantly lower number of days of admission during the two-year period, but was not associated with antipsychotic medication or depression after 2 years. CONCLUSION: FRSs are very common among first-episode psychosis patients, but their predictive value seems to be limited with respect to outcome measures like psychopathology, work or substance abuse. However, FRSs did predict a lower mean of days of admission.
BACKGROUND: Only a few randomized clinical trials have tested the effect on transition rates of intervention programs for patients with sub-threshold psychosis-like symptoms. AIM: To examine whether integrated treatment reduced transition to psychosis for first-contact patients diagnosed with schizotypal disorder. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients were randomized to integrated treatment or standard treatment. Survival analysis with multivariate Cox-regression was used to identify factors determinant for transition to psychotic disorder. RESULTS: In the multivariate model, male gender increased risk for transition to psychotic disorder (relative risk=4.47, (confidence interval 1.30-15.33)), while integrated treatment reduced the risk (relative risk=0.36 (confidence interval 0.16-0.85)). At two-year follow-up, the proportion diagnosed with a psychotic disorder was 25.0% for patients randomized to integrated treatment compared to 48.3% for patients randomized to standard treatment. CONCLUSION: Integrated treatment postponed or inhibited onset of psychosis in significantly more cases than standard treatment.
Little evidence exists concerning the optimal treatment for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and the effect on traditional outcomes. The aim was to investigate whether optimal treatment models have an effect on the level of use of coercion and on traditional outcomes. Hospital-based Rehabilitation, an intensified inpatient treatment model, Integrated Treatment, an intensified model of Assertive Community Treatment, and standard treatment were compared for patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Ninety-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders estimated to benefit from long-term hospitalization were included consecutively from the Copenhagen OPUS-trial and randomized to the three treatment models. At 1-year follow-up, Hospital-based Rehabilitation and Integrated Treatment had better scores on symptoms in the negative dimension and on client satisfaction. Integrated Treatment had fewer bed-days, more patients living in non-supervised accommodation, and better score on quality of life. No differences were found as to the use of coercion. This study adds to the evidence that intensified treatment models are superior to standard treatment. A higher number of bed-days in Hospital-based Rehabilitation did not influence the effect on the outcomes measured.