OBJECTIVE: The study examined to what extent patients with cluster A + B personality disorders (PDs) evoked other countertransference reactions among psychotherapists compared with patients with cluster C PDs as well as the relationship between the different countertransference reactions and outcome. METHODS: A total of 11 therapists at the Department for Personality Psychiatry, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, filled out the Feeling Word Checklist-58 (FWC-58), 2 weeks after admission and 2 weeks before discharge, for 71 patients admitted to the day treatment program. The patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). RESULTS: The study revealed that patients with cluster A + B PDs evoked more negative and less positive countertransference reactions than those with cluster C PDs. The psychotherapists varied significantly more in their reported countertransference reactions toward patients with cluster A + B PDs than toward those with cluster C PDs. Patients who dropped out of treatment evoked significantly more negative countertransference reactions after 2 weeks than patients who completed the treatment. In addition, the study revealed strong correlations between countertransference feelings and change during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This empirical study confirms clinical narratives on specified relationships between countertransference reactions, different PDs, and treatment course.
Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven. OBJECTIVE: To study whether 1-year outcome will be better in a health care sector with early detection (ED) of psychosis compared with sectors with no early detection (no-ED). DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study with ED in 2 experimental sectors and no-ED in 2 control sectors. ED was achieved through low-threshold ED teams and information campaigns about psychosis for the public, schools, and primary health care providers. The ED and no-ED health care areas offered an equivalent assessment and treatment program during the first year. Two hundred and eighty-one patients were included; 88% were reassessed after 1 year. RESULTS: The ED-area patients (N = 141) had a median duration of untreated psychosis of 5 weeks at baseline compared with 16 weeks for patients in the no-ED area (N = 140). Positive and general symptoms, global assessment of functioning, quality of life, time to remission, and course of psychosis at 1 year after the start of treatment were not different between ED and no-ED groups. Outcome was significantly better for the ED area for negative symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The ED, no-ED differences at baseline become attenuated by 1 year but not the difference in negative symptoms, suggesting secondary prevention in this domain of psychopathology. However, this possibility requires further testing by follow-up and replication.
Psychoeducational multifamily group treatment based on the McFarlane model was implemented for adult patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis and for the families of 301 patients. Patients were participants in a research project in Norway and Denmark. Of 301 patients 246 were invited to participate and 147 agreed. Patients' reluctance to participate increased with age. Most had to wait between six and 12 months until a sufficient number was gathered to start a group. Treatment was well received by patients and families. Care should be taken to prevent a long delay before group commencement at this stressful period in the lives of patients and families.