The phenomenon of acculturation stress is described with particular reference to the subsequent development of the transitional role conflict. The adolescent and young adult male Eskimo is especially susceptible to the anxiety generated by the process of acculturation and it is the interaction of this external stress with the bio-psychosocial characteristics of the individual within his ecological group, that may lead to an increased incidence of mental disorder. The clinical picture that develops will depend on the complex interaction of this psychosocial stressor and the level of ego development and its accompanying defence and coping strategies. We see how the development of manifest psychopathology in two young Inuit males was intimately associated with the stresses of acculturation acting upon personalities characterized by a low self-esteem and negative self-image, feelings of emasculation and a state of anomie. Coping and defensive strategies exhibited both similarities (drugs, alcohol, withdrawal, actin out) and differences (psychosis versus dissociation). The value of modified supportive therapy with continuity of care aimed at increasing self-esteem through sublimation, identification, reduction of dependency and encouragement of growth and autonomy is described, as are measures aimed at primary prevention.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2319.
There is an accumulating body of research related to the psychosomatic study of blood pressure. One variable that has received attention is defense use. We examined the relation between defense use and blood pressure in men and women of different ages.
A random sample of 667 participants was selected from a population-based study. Resting blood pressure was obtained, and each participant was rated for defense use by a trained observer using Defense-Q. An Adaptive Defense Profile (ADP) score was calculated for each participant, and this score was related to blood pressure.
Regression analyses revealed a significant main effect for the ADP score for both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Those persons with higher ADP scores had lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure. As well, a significant Age x Sex x ADP score interaction was found for diastolic blood pressure. Older women with a less ADP score had higher diastolic blood pressure.
These findings suggest the continued investigation of defense use and blood pressure.
INTRODUCTION: There are currently many changes taking place in the aviation system affecting the work of air traffic controllers (ATCOs), and thus it was considered important to assess work-related demands and stress responses among ATCOs. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of burnout among ATCOs compared with other professions; to examine the relationship between job demands, job resources, and burnout; and to examine if burnout could predict both work- and health-related outcomes. METHOD: The participants were 209 Norwegian ATCOs and data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to 500 ATCOs. The study was part of a national survey of both health care and non-health care professions. RESULTS: ATCOs did not score high on burnout compared with the three comparisons groups (police, journalists, and building constructors); in fact, ATCOs scored significantly lower on exhaustion compared with journalists (Hedges g=65) and building constructors (Hedges g=63), and not significantly different from police officers. Both job demands and job resources were related to burnout; work conflict especially was an important predictor for all of the three burnout dimensions. Burnout predicted psychosomatic complaints (r2=0.48), satisfaction with life (r2=0.25), and other work outcomes. DISCUSSION: The overall level of burnout was not high among ATCOs compared with other professions, which may be related to selection procedures for the profession. Burnout was related to important outcome variables such as psychosomatic complaints and attitudes toward work.
The occurrence of psychogenic amblyopia in a population of school children was studied. From the population of 14,000 school children under the surveillance of school nurses and doctors, 2280 were referred to the author for an ophthalmological examination during a two-year period. Forty children (1.75%) were diagnosed as having psychogenic amblyopia corresponding to an incidence of 1.4/1000/year. Psychogenic amblyopia was characterized by a high percentage of girls (48 out of 52) and the highest occurrence at the age of 9 to 11 years. There was a wide variation of the duration of the condition, but 37% of the patients recovered within one year. A psychological cause for amblyopia could be revealed in only a few cases. According to the present study psychogenic amblyopia can occur at a relatively high incidence. Awareness of this condition could spare these children from straining, expensive tests.
Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care.
This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses.
Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making.
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The article presents the results of studies of the anxious and depressed characteristics in elderly migrants of the Far North with arterial hypertension in the period of their stay in new climatic conditions with regard to their North experience, gender, age and timing of rehabilitation. There was a high frequency of disturbing-depressive symptomatology of the surveyed migrants in the Far North, the frequency and severity of which increases with age; women migrants of Far North are prone to depression 1,8 times, anxiety--3,2 times more often than men. With the increase of the period of stay in the new climate and geographical conditions, the severity and frequency of occurrence of anxiety and depression increase. The obtained results should be taken into account when building rehabilitation program and forecasting its effectiveness, while conducting psychotherapy and psychological prevention in this group of patients.
The association between burnout and physical diseases has been studied very little. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and physical illness in a representative nationwide population health study.
As a part of the "Health 2000 Study" in Finland, 3368 employees aged 30-64 years were studied. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Physical diseases were diagnosed in a comprehensive health examination by research physicians.
Physical illness was more common among subjects with burnout than others (64% vs. 54%, P
The aim was to assess the association between medical conditions and gender, well-being, psychosomatic complaints and school adaptability. The second aim was to determine whether self-reported medical conditions should be included in class-room questionnaires that deal with well-being and risk behaviour.
A cross-sectional class-room questionnaire was given to all 15- to 16-year-olds within a Swedish county. The questionnaire included background factors, subjective health, well-being, psychosomatic complaints, self image, drug use and also several themes from the school context. In addition, there were 13 medical conditions/problems to tick (yes or no) and an open alternative for other problems/medical conditions.
3108 questionnaires (response rate 84%) were analysed. The majority of the girls and the boys reported no medical conditions; however, 49% of the girls and 39% of the boys reported at least one medical condition. The medical conditions were associated with gender, well-being, psychosomatic complaints and school adaptability. The association was stronger for girls than for boys.
Medical conditions among these teenagers were associated with gender, well-being, psychosomatic complaints and school adaptability, particularly for girls. Our results suggest that medical conditions could preferably be included in regular classroom questionnaires.
The concept of health contains aspects of social and mental well-being and not just the absence of disease. The concept of well-being is sometimes used interchangeably with the term happiness, although focus has been on other aspects as well. Here we explore associations between happiness and experience of stress at school, personal and social factors among 887 Norwegian school adolescents participating in a World Health Organization project on health-promoting schools. Happiness was measured by a one item question (ordered responses 1-4). The psychosocial factors were represented by an average score of 3-12 items. Odds ratios of feeling very/quite happy were calculated in multiple logistic regression analyses. An increasing degree of stress experience reduced the feeling of happiness significantly. Furthermore, increasing levels of general self-efficacy increased the odds of feeling happy, whereas the more specific measure of school self-efficacy showed no independent effect. Social support from teachers also enhanced happiness significantly. A less consistent pattern was found for support from peers, but the most happy pupils experienced significantly more support than pupils who reported being unhappy. No significant trend was found with decision control. We also explored associations between happiness and psychosomatic symptoms. Pupils feeling unhappy reported a particular symptom more often and they also had the highest mean number of reported symptoms. To evaluate whether these health indicators represent different dimensions of health, a comparison of strength of associations with common risk factors is made. Implications for health promotion practice are discussed.