A three-year national intervention program introduced into the School Psychology Service (SPS) in Norway with the aim of increasing systemic level work among SP counselors was investigated. Latent variable growth models based on longitudinal data from 195 SP counselors gave no significant mean level change in systemic level work. This concurred with GLM analyses based on data from a sample of 20 schools. However, retrospective self-reported significant positive mean level change for systemic level work was detected among the SP counselors. Intervention program participation was associated with individual change in systemic level work. Self-efficacy beliefs about systemic level work, and school-related etiology beliefs predicted individual change to a certain degree. Comparison of two rival models gave no support for a hypothesized interaction among intervention program participation and beliefs in their effects on systemic level work. Open-ended questions indicated that individual level workload and the perceived expectations from the schools may have concern for a successful effect of the intervention program in addition to the hypothesized ones. Individual change in systemic level work was positively associated with individual change in job satisfaction.
To analyze the attitudes of the medical students from Kaunas University of Medicine, Krakow Jagiellonian University, and St. Petersburg State University towards the studies of the humanities and social sciences.
The survey was carried out in three universities (Kaunas University of Medicine, Krakow Jagiellonian University, and St. Petersburg State University) during 2004-2005. The questionnaire for the investigation was developed based on R. D. Stenberg's works on the ways of knowledge-, practice-, and personality-oriented thinking.
After the analysis of students' attitudes towards the importance of the disciplines of ethics, philosophy, sociology, and psychology at the universities of Kaunas, Krakow, and St. Petersburg, important differences have been found among them. Students gave the highest priority to ethics in their profession. Answering the question, "Are philosophical studies important in medical studies," statistically significant differences appeared among Krakow, Kaunas, and St. Petersburg universities. Students of all the universities agreed that sociology and psychology studies were important for their future profession.
Having estimated the opinions of medical students' attitudes towards the importance of the humanities and social sciences, we may state that the students of Krakow and St. Petersburg universities more often agreed that ethics and philosophy were important for their studies. The importance of psychology science was emphasized by the students of all universities, and the students of Kaunas University of Medicine and St. Petersburg State University agreed more often that the discipline of sociology was important for the future studies.
To explore factors affecting collaboration between family physicians and psychologists.
Mailed French-language survey.
Family physicians practising in the area of the Réseau des services de santé en français de l'Est de l'Ontario.
Physicians' knowledge and understanding of the qualifications of psychologists and the regulations governing their profession; beliefs regarding the effectiveness of psychological treatments; views on the integration of psychologists into primary care; and factors affecting referrals to psychologists.
Of 457 surveys sent, 118 were returned and analyzed (27% of surveys delivered). Most family physicians were well aware that there were evidence-based psychological interventions for mental health and personal difficulties, and some knew that psychological interventions could help with physical conditions. Physicians had some knowledge about the qualifications and training of psychologists. Many physicians reported being uncomfortable providing counseling themselves owing to time constraints, the perception that they were inadequately trained for such work, and personal preferences. The largest barrier to referring patients to psychologists was cost, since services were not covered by public health insurance. Some physicians were deterred from referring by previous experience of not receiving feedback on patients from psychologists. Increased access to clinical psychologists through collaborative care was considered a desirable goal for primary health care.
Family physicians know that there are evidence-based psychological interventions for mental health issues. Psychologists need to communicate better about their credentials and what they can offer, and share their professional opinions and recommendations on referred patients. Physicians would welcome practice-based psychological services and integrated interdisciplinary collaboration as recommended by the Kirby and Romanow commissions, but such collaboration is hampered by the lack of public health insurance coverage.
The present article describes the pilot course in basic sexology for medical students. The duration of the course was 5 days (35 hours). The themes-sex and gender, sexual physiology, contraception, sexual inadequacy, sexual deviations, and sexual counselling-were approached from many different angles. The teaching procedure comprised lectures, group work, and group discussions, internal television, films, plenary discussions, and debates. The course was evaluated by means of the sex knowledge and attitude test (SKAT) given before and after the course. Furthermore an evaluation was given by the students, by a professional teacher, and by a paramedical evaluator at the end of the course. The results showed significant changes in attitudes and knowledge.
Nurses have limited knowledge about urinary incontinence and find it difficult to care for those who suffer from it, yet there is little training on incontinence designed for nurses. Hence, there is a real need to develop and evaluate an appropriate urinary incontinence educational program. A critical issue is the choice of teaching strategies designed to integrate learning. This article describes the competency-based approach and case method used to develop a urinary incontinence education program.
A large public health institute - one of the three at Tampere - handles the instruction in subjects related to behaviour and community medicine. The students meet patients already in the first term during the group instruction, take part in educational visits, and work for several different periods with the health and sick-care services. In the third year, 30 hours are devoted to a course on the doctor-patient relationship.
This pilot study evaluated a research method for examining the efficacy of screen capture tutorials in teaching database search skills. This is not a results-oriented paper but rather describes the facets and testing of a mixed methods protocol. The lessons learned can be applied to a result-oriented study with a larger sample size and to the development of methods for similar studies. The protocol tried to balance control of variables with observing behavior in the natural setting. A combination of concept maps, an information stage questionnaire, and screen recordings provided rich information about health practitioners' research questions and search strategies.
The objective of this study was to present survey data on the teaching of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in health care centers across Canada.
Of 1273 centers identified, 175 were found to practice ECT. These centers were asked to complete a questionnaire, and 107 (61%) of them answered 5 questions dealing specifically with ECT teaching. These questions were as follows: (1) Does your facility have an ECT teaching program for residents in psychiatry? (2) How is ECT taught to residents in psychiatry? (3) If direct supervision of the administration of ECT is a requirement of the psychiatry training program, is there a minimum number of supervised treatments or minimum duration of training period? (4) Do residents provide unsupervised ECT at your center? (5) Which other groups of learners, if any, are provided with orientation, teaching, or training in ECT?
Sixty percent of respondents had no ECT teaching program for psychiatry residents. Pedagogical methods varied, ranging from direct observation of ECT treatments to directed readings. Few centers required a minimum number of supervised treatments. No resident-administered ECT is performed without direct supervision. Interestingly, various groups of health care professionals were often invited to participate in ECT training.
The situation regarding ECT teaching continues to be a cause for concern given the noted absence of organized, structured, and mandatory programs. No resident administering ECT, however, goes unsupervised, which is in keeping with good practice. Electroconvulsive therapy is taught in many different ways, and teaching is accessible to different groups of health care professionals. However, much remains to be done to standardize ECT teaching to render this therapy available to all those who need it and to overcome the stigma and bias associated with it.