PURPOSE: To describe a family-centered intervention for sleep disturbed infants and its effect on the infants' sleep pattern. METHODS: The sample consisted of 33 infants (6-23 month of age) hospitalized because of sleep problems in The City Hospital in Reykjavik, Iceland, and 33 mothers and 30 fathers. Infants' sleep patterns were assessed by a 1-week diary and by interviews with parents before hospital admission, 1 week and 2 months after discharge. The intervention was based on correction of day-sleep rhythm, support of self-comforting capabilities of the infant, and education of parents in regard to the infants' characteristics and developmental status. Changes in day naps and infant irritability over daytime also improved significantly. FINDINGS: Night sleep improved significantly 1 week after discharge and even more so 2 months later. CONCLUSIONS: Offering a family-centered intervention improves infants' sleep patterns up to 2 months after discharge.
This paper addresses the ongoing debate in the JAP to do with archetype theory and supports an emergent/developmental model which sees archetypal imagery as an emergent phenomenon arising out of neural bio-structures laid down in early infant life as a result of developmental experience. This model is supported by the current findings of those developmental biologists who adhere to Developmental Systems Theory. The themes of Developmental Systems Theory are examined and corroborative parallels are drawn with the model. A number of implications follows: the model has substantial explanatory power and leads to a new perspective on innatism; it implies an archetype-environment nexus; it collapses the nature-nurture debate in relation to archetype theory; it collapses the 'sacred heritage' approach to archetypes and it removes the conceptual division between the collective and personal unconscious. This developmental/emergent perspective is then applied to the shaman archetype, using ethnographic records of the Sakha (Yakut) Siberian tribe. The material supports the hypothesis that the shamanic complex is laid down in early infancy by a combination of events which cause emotional ruptures in the mother-infant dyad. Siberian shamanism is then understood to arise out of developmental experience and not from the constellation of an autochthonous archetype.
This review is an attempt to integrate Anglo-American and Swedish studies on father/son relationships. The puerperal period, infancy and early childhood are surveyed. Swedish studies do not support specific stereotyped bonding in the puerperal period. The review confirms the bidirectional nature of the father/son relationship. Thus, counteridentification, i.e. the father's identification with his son, and identification during the oedipal phase, i.e. the son's identification with his father, seem to be essential components in the father/son relationship. However, studies on parent-infant behaviour indicate that different parental roles exist early in infancy. Also, attachment studies point to the specificity of the father/son relationship before the oedipal phase. It is concluded that the major importance of the father/son relationship during the preschool years is to facilitate the son's masculine identification.
The frame of psychotherapy shows both universality and social relativity. Since the intrapsychic world is permeable to social reality, the meaning of insurance in psychotherapy depends on context. Experience with Canadian National Health Insurance suggests that when no-fee psychotherapy in normative, it is absorbed in the frame. There are still trouble spots in the Canadian system, particularly the management of missed sessions. Depending on the needs of the patient, charging for missed sessions can disrupt therapy entirely or be constructive for the treatment.
The psychoanalytic treatment model of neurotic disorders was applied "experimentally," usually without concomitant pharmacotherapy, to psychotic disorders in the mid to late 20th century at a private institution (Chestnut Lodge) in Maryland. A long-term follow-up (by this author) essentially documented such an approach to be ineffective but suggested that initial treatment earlier in the development of disorder might prevent or ameliorate the "dementia" of dementia praecox. The opportunity to actually measure the effect of earlier detection and treatment became apparent to this author on sabbatical leave in Stavanger, Norway. The sectorized Norwegian health care system made it possible to engineer early detection of first psychosis in an "experimental" health care sector and compare their outcome to that of first onset patients from two control "usual detection" health care sectors. Early detection was engineered in the experimental sector with educational campaigns about the signs and symptoms of first psychosis targeting the sector's doctors, educators, and the general public through massive educational campaigns. The result was clear. Early detection and treatment resulted in a significantly better symptomatic, social, and instrumental outcome in the experimental sectors compared with "usual detection" sectors, a difference that lasted up to a 10-year follow-up (and perhaps permanently). These events and findings will be reviewed to assert that intervention timing may be far more important than intervention type in the overall strategy of antipsychotic interventions.
Data available indicate that numerous childcare workers are not strongly motivated to engage children aged 3-5 in physical activity. Using the theory of planned behavior as the main theoretical framework, this study has 2 objectives: to identify the determinants of the intention of childcare workers to engage preschoolers in physical activity and to identify the variables that could be used to develop an intervention to motivate childcare workers to support preschoolers' physical activity.
174 childcare workers from 60 childcare centers selected at random in 2 regions of Quebec completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing the constructs of the theory of planned behavior as well as past behavior, descriptive norm and moral norm.
Moral norm, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm explained 85% of the variance in intention to engage the children in physical activity.
To motivate childcare workers, it is necessary that they perceive that directors, children's parents and coworkers approve of their involvement in children's physical activity. In addition, their ability to overcome perceived barriers (lack of time, loaded schedule, inclement weather) should be developed. Access to a large outdoor yard might also help motivate childcare workers.