Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teachers' Report Form (TRF) were administered to 6-12 year old school children comprising a large random community sample (n = 1200) drawn from the whole of Greece. These are the first data on the TRF in Greece and the first nation-wide data on the CBCL. Appropriate cutoff points for the behavioral problems and competence scales of both questionnaires were obtained for boys and girls. These were considerably higher than USA cutoffs for the CBCL but not for the TRF. Analysis of scores in relation to degree of urbanization showed that it was not necessary to define different cutoffs in different strata. Parents' and teachers' ratings of the same child were most highly correlated for Externalizing and Aggressive behavior for boys and for Attention problems for both sexes.
The purpose was to explore the psychometrics and correlates of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) after myocardial infarction (MI).
The TAS-20 and other self-report measures were administered 3-6 months after discharge to 1443 patients.
Good internal reliability was confirmed for the total TAS-20 and two subscales (F1 and F2). The F3 showed low internal consistency linked to negatively keyed items. The prevalence of alexithymia was 30.2% at the first interview. Alexithymics were older, less educated, more likely to have previous MIs and had higher scores on all measures of negative emotions. Six-month test-retest reliability was.47 (n=167). Residual change score analysis showed patients with more education and a first MI had greater decreases in alexithymia than expected.
The TAS-20 has adequate internal consistency in post-MI patients, and its correlates are similar to other reports. Low temporal stability suggests that secondary alexithymia is important after MI.
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of all 3 PID-5 forms, simultaneously, based on a Danish sample (N = 1376) of 451 psychiatric outpatients and 925 community-dwelling participants. Scale reliability and factorial validity were satisfactory across all 3 PID-5 forms. The correlational profiles of the short and brief PID-5 forms with clinician-rated PD dimensions were nearly identical with that of the original PID-5 (rICC = .99 and .95, respectively). All 3 forms discriminated appropriately between psychiatric patients and community-dwelling individuals. This supports that all 3 PID-5 forms can be used to reliably and validly assess PD traits and provides initial support for the use of the abbreviated PID-5 forms in a European population. However, only the original 220-item form and the short 100-item form capture all 25 trait facets, and the brief 25-item form may be ideally limited to preliminary screening or situations with substantial time restrictions.
In an international study, psychometric properties of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) were examined by analysing data gathered in Dutch, Canadian, Italian and Norwegian nursing homes. For that purpose, from these countries a convenience sample was developed consisting of 525 patients with dementia. The English, Italian and Norwegian research instruments were translations of the original Dutch CDS. Psychometric evaluations of the CDS were carried out for each country separately as well as for the four countries combined. High alpha coefficients between 0.94 and 0.97 were calculated. Subsequent test-retest and inter-rater reliability revealed moderate to substantial Kappa values. Factor analysis resulted in a one-factor solution. The scalability of the CDS was demonstrated by means of Mokken scale analysis. One of the main outcomes of the cross-cultural comparison was that the findings in the four countries show more similarities than differences, so that the scale can be used appropriately in nursing home practice.
In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; ) was administered to a large sample of persons (n=2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada, France, Mexico, The Netherlands, Spain, and the United States. We sought to (a) determine the factor structure and internal consistency of the ASI-R and (b) examine the correlations of the measure with psychiatric symptoms and personality dimensions in a single European non-English speaking country (The Netherlands). Partially consistent with the original hypothesis, the underlying structure of the anxiety sensitivity construct was generally similar across countries, tapping fear about the negative consequences of anxiety-related physical and social-cognitive sensations. Lower-order factors were moderately to strongly correlated with one another and showed good internal consistency. The observed lower-order ASI-R factors correlated with established psychiatric symptoms and with the personality trait of neuroticism. Partial correlations indicated that both factors are useful in accounting for variance in symptom measures. We discuss the results of this investigation in relation to the cross-cultural assessment of the anxiety sensitivity construct.
Depressed patients in general practice may be difficult to identify. Questionnaires may be used for screening but some of the existing instruments are difficult to use and have only to a limited degree been introduced in general practice. In this study 798 patients' answers to the COOP/WONCA chart "Feelings" were compared to GPs' diagnosis according to ICD-10 criteria for depressive single episode (F32). At cut-off2/3 (slight/moderate problems) the chart had a sensitivity of 89% (76-100%) and specificity of 75% (72-78%). The predictive value of a positive test was not higher than 33% for any cut-off point and the predictive value of a negative test never less than 98%. A two-phased diagnostic strategy with the COOP/WONCA chart as step one is suggested as a possible and relatively simple way to optimize recognition of depressive patients in general practice.
The activities of daily living (ADL) functioning of 26 subjects with Alzheimer's disease was measured using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) and family informants' Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) reports. Concordance with a clinician's ratings of subjects' level of ADL functioning was achieved for 77% of the subjects based on their AMPS ADL process ability measures and for 54% for the subjects based on their family informants' OARS ADL ratings. In cases of discordance, subjects' AMPS ADL process ability measures were just as likely to overestimate (11.5%) as to underestimate (11.5%) subjects' ADL functioning. In contrast, 46% of the informants overestimated their family members' ADL functioning, and this was more likely to occur when subjects' cognitive impairment was mild.
In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index [ASI; Behav. Res. Ther. 24 (1986) 1] was administered to 282 American Indian and Alaska Native college students in a preliminary effort to: (a) evaluate the factor structure and internal consistency of the ASI in a sample of Native Americans; (b) examine whether this group would report greater levels of anxiety sensitivity and gender and age-matched college students from the majority (Caucasian) culture lesser such levels; and (c) explore whether gender differences in anxiety sensitivity dimensions varied by cultural group (Native American vs. Caucasian). Consistent with existing research, results of this investigation indicated that, among Native peoples, the ASI and its subscales had high levels of internal consistency, and a factor structure consisting of three lower-order factors (i.e. Physical, Psychological, and Social Concerns) that all loaded on a single higher-order (global Anxiety Sensitivity) factor. We also found that these Native American college students reported significantly greater overall ASI scores as well as greater levels of Psychological and Social Concerns relative to counterparts from the majority (Caucasian) culture. There were no significant differences detected for ASI physical threat concerns. In regard to gender, we found significant differences between males and females in terms of total and Physical Threat ASI scores, with females reporting greater levels, and males lesser levels, of overall anxiety sensitivity and greater fear of physical sensations; no significant differences emerged between genders for the ASI Psychological and Social Concerns dimensions. These gender differences did not vary by cultural group, indicating they were evident among Caucasian and Native Americans alike. We discuss the results of this investigation in relation to the assessment of anxiety sensitivity in American Indians and Alaska Natives, and offer directions for future research with the ASI in Native peoples.
A man-made chemical disaster occurred in the Amur River, leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Nanai people indigenous to the river's surrounding area. PTSD severity measured by the total scores of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (Total-I) and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) (Total-C) were not always identical in terms of demographic and ethnocultural characters. It is possible that the results derived using the Total-I and Total-C may differ for persons with different backgrounds and/or individual characteristics. In this study, the associations between PTSD severity and personal characteristics were evaluated.
The study was a field-type survey including 187 randomly selected participants (75 males and 112 females). In addition to Total-I/Total-C, scores for each IES-R/CAPS item, Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, and Ego Structure Test by Ammon (ISTA) score were examined to evaluate their personal characteristics.
No specific trends in ISTA score were obvious among four groups defined according to Total-I/Total-C. The results of principal component analysis showed that all IES-R/CAPS items contributed positively to the 1st axis but to the 2nd axis in a different manner. ISTA items did not always show correlations to each other, but principal component analysis suggested that Construct contributed positively and Destruct and Deficient (with the exception of Destruct sexuality) contributed negatively. High IES-R scores were associated with Construct Aggression and Deficient Inner demarcation, but high CAPS score was less likely to exhibit Construct Narcissism.
To avoid the misdiagnosis of PTSD, usage of both IES-R/CAPS may be required. Simultaneous application of personality/ego tests may be helpful, but appropriate numbers of their questions would be important.
Cites: Ann Occup Environ Med. 2015 Jun 05;27:16 PMID 26137313
The Beck Depression Inventory and General Health Questionnaire as measures of depression in the general population: a validation study using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview as the gold standard.
The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) are commonly used in population studies as measures of depression. We examined in a population sample the validity of four scales for depressive symptoms, the GHQ-12, the 21- and 13-item versions of the BDI, and a new 6-item version of the BDI developed for this study. A total of 5561 participants in the "Health 2000" survey (30-79 years) completed the four scales and were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which was used as the validation criterion. We selected items for the BDI-6 through an exploratory factor analysis for the BDI-21. The accuracy of the scales, including the BDI-6, was satisfactory (c-statistics 0.88-0.92 for depression within the past 2 weeks and 0.80-0.83 within the past 12 months) and slightly better for men (0.92-0.96 and 0.85-0.87) than for women (0.86-0.88 and 0.78-0.79). Higher scores in all the scales were associated with more severe depression and more recent depressive episodes. This study suggests that various versions of the BDI and the GHQ-12 are useful in detecting depressive disorders in the general population. Even the 6-item version of the BDI showed acceptable criterion validity, although replication in an independent dataset is needed to confirm its validity.