Three hundred and thirty individuals (80% of the total staff members at a Department of Psychiatry) completed a questionnaire concerning their exposure to patient violence. It was found that over 90% of physicians, nurses and nursing aides had been subjected to patient violence at least once during the entire course of their employment in departments of psychiatry. The following percentages were found for incidents of patients violence occurring during a one year period towards staff while employed in departments of psychiatry: residents (17%), nurses (36%), and nursing aides (52%). The highest frequency was found for nursing staff working in closed wards (75%). Length of employment, and thereby the staff's experience, was not related to exposure to patient violence. Neither sex nor age of the nursing staff were significantly associated with their exposure to patient violence. About 1/3 of the nurses and nursing aides had considered changing their job because of patient violence.
Community adjustment of former psychiatric patients has been found to relate highly to the likelihood of rehospitalization and community tenure. The present study examined the ability of a community adjustment scale and various other patient characteristics to predict rehospitalization. Multiple regression analysis using rehospitalization as the dependent variable identified thirteen items including twelve from the community adjustment scale, which combined to provide a highly accurate prediction. The brief scale (13 items) which is now being cross-validated is potentially a useful tool for clinical evaluation and planning of follow-up series to former patients.
This article reviews measures of child and adolescent psychopathology used in Asian cultures. Sixteen imported measures from the West are identified and their psychometric equivalence across cultures is reviewed; 2 new measures are briefly introduced. Although initial evidence is generally promising, more studies are needed to support their use in Asia. One recently developed Singapore measure cannot be considered genuinely indigenous. Culture-specific items proposed for imported measures could be grouped into existing diagnostic constructs. There is, as yet, no strong theoretical support for culture-bound diagnostic constructs in Asian cultures.
The Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (GBS) is assessed for use in evaluating functional deficiencies in demented persons. The scale is translated into different languages, and reliability studies have been published from Sweden and Norway. This investigation is a reliability study of the Danish version. Fourty-nine patients were rated by several independent raters from the staff at the same time. Preceding this, all raters had been video-trained in the use of the scale. The results show that the scale has sufficient and satisfactory inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that the Danish version of the GBS-scale is also a useful tool for evaluating dementia processes and therapeutic measures.
A modified depression rating scale was distributed to a sample of the adult Finnish population (n = 1000) in November 1991. No dependence on latitude (60 degrees N-70 degrees N) was seen in the occurrence of depression. The depressed subjects (n = 54) were reevaluated the following May, and four cases with seasonal affective disorder were found. The results suggest that high latitudes with large variations in the daily lightperiod may not be responsible for high prevalence of major depression with a seasonal pattern.
To test the reliability and robustness of the CPRS in use by different disciplines we obtained 49 pairs of ratings on depressed patients in England and Sweden during treatment. Each rater pair consisted of a psychiatrist trained as a rater plus either a psychologist, a general practitioner, or a nurse, who had not been trained as a rater. The 17 most commonly rated items in depressive illness showed good inter-rater reliability for all groups and demonstrated the robustness of the scale even in training sessions. The implications of this for future interdisciplinary research are discussed along with suggestions for the use of the CPRS for teaching purposes.