Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have been associated with acute kidney injury and recent studies suggest that they may be associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
We performed a retrospective analysis using the Stockholm creatinine measurements database, which contains information on diagnoses, dispensation claims, and laboratory test results for all citizens in the Stockholm region from 2007 through 2010. We identified new users of PPIs (n = 105,305) and new users of H2 blockers (H2B; n = 9578); data on renal outcomes were collected for a median 2.7 years. The primary outcome was progression CKD, defined as doubling of creatinine or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30% or more. Secondary outcomes were end-stage renal disease and acute kidney injury. Complete collection of repeated PPI and H2B dispensations at pharmacies in Sweden allowed modeling the time-dependent risk associated with cumulative PPI exposure.
Users of PPIs, compared with users of H2Bs, had an increased risk for doubled levels of creatinine (1985 events; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51) and decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30% or more (11,045 events; 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16-1.36). PPI use also associated with development of end-stage renal disease (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 0.76-7.58) and acute kidney injury (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.69). There was a graded association between cumulative exposure to PPIs and risk of CKD progression. This was not the case for cumulative H2B use.
Initiation of PPI therapy and cumulative PPI exposure is associate with increased risk of CKD progression in a large, North European healthcare system. Although consistent, the association was modest in magnitude, and cannot exclude residual confounding.
Changes in the occurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GORS) in the population remain uncertain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence changes, the incidence and the spontaneous loss of GORS.
This population-based cohort study was conducted within the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT study), a longitudinal series of population-based health surveys in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. The study base encompassed all adult residents in the county, and the participants reported the degree of GORS during the previous 12 months. The number of participants included were 58,869 (64% response rate) in 1995-7 and 44,997 (49%) in 2006-9. Of these, 29,610 persons (61%) were prospectively followed up for an average of 11 years.
Between 1995-7 and 2006-9, the prevalence of any, severe and at least weekly GORS increased by 30% (from 31.4% to 40.9%), 24% (from 5.4% to 6.7%) and 47% (from 11.6% to 17.1%), respectively. The average annual incidence of any and severe GORS was 3.07% and 0.23%, respectively. In women, but not men, the incidence of GORS increased with increasing age. The average annual spontaneous loss (not due to antireflux medication) of any and severe GORS was 2.32% and 1.22%, respectively. The spontaneous loss of GORS decreased with increasing age.
Between 1995-7 and 2006-9 the prevalence of GORS increased substantially. At least weekly GORS increased by 47%. The average annual incidence of severe GORS was 0.23%, and the corresponding spontaneous loss was 1.22%. The incidence and spontaneous loss of GORS were influenced by sex and age.
Oesophageal lesion is the commonest visceral manifestation of systemic scleroderma (SSD) affecting the quality of life and fraught with serious complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, endoscopic andmorphological manifestations of oesophageal lesion in systemic scleroderma and its relationships with other clinical symptoms and pharmacotherapy of the disease.
479 patients with SSD (93.7% women, 6.3% men, mean age 48.7 +/- 19.2 yr). All of them underwent EGDS in 2005-2010. 123 patients were examined for the detection of Barrett's oesophagus (BO), total screening regardless of complaints was conducted in 2010. Control group included 1018 age and sex-matched patients with RA who underwent EGDS in 2008-2009.
Oesophageal lesions occurred much more frequently in SSD than in RA. Oesophageal symptoms were documented in 70.0 and 29.9% cases, non-erosive oesopahgitis in 28.8 and 1.5%, erosive esophagitis in 22.5 and 2.2% ulcers in 0.8 and 0% (p
BACKGROUND: Despite a decreasing incidence of peptic ulcer disease, most previous studies report a stabile incidence of ulcer complications. We wanted to investigate the incidence of peptic ulcer complications in Sweden before and after the introduction of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in 1988 and compare these data to the sales of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). METHODS: All cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer complications diagnosed in Sweden from 1974 to 2002 were identified using the National hospital discharge register. Information on sales of ASA/NSAID was obtained from the National prescription survey. RESULTS: When comparing the time-periods before and after 1988 we found a significantly lower incidence of peptic ulcer complications during the later period for both sexes (p
National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested with a rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. Testing after eradication should not be done before 4 weeks after treatment has ended.
This study aimed to compare use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), 2001-2005, in the elderly and social security beneficiaries in Australia (AUS) and Nova Scotia, Canada (NS).
Prescription dispensing data were collected for all subsidised H2RAs and PPIs. In AUS, dispensing data for concession beneficiaries were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme database. In NS, data were sourced from the Pharmacare database. Relevant population data were used to convert to World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical defined daily doses (2005) per 1000 beneficiaries per day (DDD/1000/day).
Overall use of gastroprotective agents was similar and rising in NS and AUS (100-160?DDD/1000/day) over this 5-year time window. However, the proportion of this use accounted for by PPIs was far higher in AUS (over 85% by 2005) than in NS (23% rising to 35% over the 5?years). In AUS, PPI use rose from 50 to about 140?DDD/1000/day over the 5?years, whereas PPI use in NS rose slowly to less than 60?DDD/1000/day by 2005. H2RA use in NS was always high (over 100?DDD/1000/day), whereas in AUS, H2RA use fell from 54 to around 24?DDD/1000/day over this period.
AUS had much higher use of PPIs than NS over 2001-2005. The proportion of PPIs in all gastroprotective agents rose in AUS to be nearly 90%. The differences in utilisation during this time window could lead to differences in health outcomes from either lower gastro-intestinal bleeding risk or higher long-term adverse effects of PPIs.
To assess the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and to compare this practice with the international guidelines in the European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, Hp-EuReg protocol), a multicenter prospective observational study initiated by the European Helicobacter and Microbiota Study Group. MATERIALs AND METHODS: The data of 813 patients infected with H. pylori and entered in the Hp-EuReg register by the Russian centers in 2013-2015 were analyzed.
The most common methods for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection are histology (40.3%), rapid urease test (35.7%), and serology (17.2%). The duration of H. pylori eradication therapy was 7, 10, and 14 days in 18.0, 49.3, and 25.1%, respectively. To monitor the effectiveness of treatment, the investigators used a histological examination (34%), a urea breath test (27.3%), H. pylori stool antigen (22.8%), and a rapid urease test (16.3%). A serological test was carried out in 2.5% of the cases. No monitoring was done in 13.5% of the patients. The average eradication efficiency was 82.6%. If the therapy was ineffective, 80% of physicians did not intend to prescribe a new cycle of treatment.
Significant differences were found between clinical practice and the current guidelines.
Diagnosis and effective management of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) need a new approach. The 2009 Montreal Consensus recommended that the clinical diagnosis of GERD should be made on the presence of troublesome symptoms. GerdQ, a patient centered-self assessment questionnaire, is made to assist health care professionals. Also, it is easy to use, no diagnostic test required, for example without previous specialist referral or endoscopy. GerdQ is a well documented questionnaire, developed on the basis of evidence. GerdQ has three potential uses in clinical practice: (1) to diagnose gastroesophagel reflux disease with an accuracy similar to that of the gastroenterological evaluation; (2) to assess the relative impact of the disease on patient's lives and to assist in choice of treatment; (3) to measure response to treatment over the time.
Population-based data on the occurrence of healthcare-associated (HCA) and hospital-acquired (HA) bacterial infections in cirrhosis, their predictors, and their impact on outcome are limited.
All patients with incident cirrhosis in 2001-2010 residing in an area of 600,000 inhabitants were retrospectively identified. All serious bacterial infections (resulting in or occurring during an inpatient hospital episode) during this period were registered. Acquisition type, site of infection, occurrence of infection-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), acute kidney injury (AKI) and bacterial resistance were analysed. Patients were followed longitudinally until death, transplant or end of 2011.
A total of 398 serious infections occurred in 241/633 (38%) patients. Forty-seven per cent were HCA and 21% HA. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use was more common in HA (80%) vs. HCA (64%) vs. community-acquired (44%) infections (P 0.05). Antibiotic-resistant infections were more frequent among HA (17%) than HCA (6%) or community-acquired (8%) infections (P
Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and its eradication aims to prevent these conditions. The recommended eradication regimen is triple therapy, consisting of a proton-pump inhibitor in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole for 7 days. Yet, other antibiotic regimens are sometimes prescribed. We aimed to assess the use of eradication therapy for H. pylori in the Swedish population during the last decade.
This population-based study used data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. From July 2005 until December 2014, all regimens that can eradicate H. pylori were identified and evaluated according to patients' age and sex and calendar year of eradication.
We identified 157,915 eradication episodes in 140,391 individuals (53.8% women, 42.6% older than 60 years), who correspond to 1.5% of the Swedish population. The absolute number and incidence of eradications decreased over the study period. Overall, 91.0% had one eradication and 0.1% had more than three. Of all eradications, 95.4% followed the recommended regimen, while 4.7% did not. The latter group was overrepresented among individuals aged =80 years (7.8%). Amoxicillin and clarithromycin were most frequently prescribed, while metronidazole was rarely used (0.01%). Other prescribed antibiotics were ciprofloxacin (2.4%), doxycycline (1.4%), nitrofurantoin (0.7%), norfloxacin (0.5%) and erythromycin (0.3%).
During the last decade in Sweden H. pylori eradication has been frequently prescribed, but the incidence of eradication has slowly declined. Most eradications followed the recommended regimen, including those occurring after a previous eradication.