Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder related to hypocretin deficiency resulting from a specific loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area. The disease is thought to be autoimmune due to a strong association with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic (A/H1N1PDM09). In response to this, the Swedish vaccination campaign began in October of the same year, using the influenza vaccine Pandemrix(?). A few months later an excess of narcolepsy cases was observed. It is still unclear to what extent the vaccination campaign affected humoral autoimmunity associated with narcolepsy. We studied 47 patients with narcolepsy (6-69 years of age) and 80 healthy controls (3-61 years of age) selected after the Pandemrix vaccination campaign. The first aim was to determine antibodies against A/H1N1 and autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2), a narcolepsy autoantigen candidate as well as to GAD65 and IA-2 as disease specificity controls. The second aim was to test if levels and frequencies of these antibodies and autoantibodies were associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02. In?vitro transcribed and translated [(35)S]-methionine and -cysteine-labeled influenza A virus (A/California/04/2009/(H1N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin was used to detect antibodies in a radiobinding assay. Autoantibodies to TRIB2, GAD65 and IA-2 were similarly detected in standard radiobinding assays. The narcolepsy patients had higher median levels of A/H1N1 antibodies than the controls (p?=?0.006). A/H1N1 antibody levels were higher among the
The integrin alphavbeta6, a receptor for fibronectin, vitronectin, tenascin and TGF-beta latency-associated peptide (LAP), is not detectable on normal oral epithelium but is neo-expressed in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and epithelial dysplasia. Previously it has been shown that alphavbeta6 integrin can up-regulate MMP-3 and -9 expression in OSCC cells. Using beta6-transfected and control OSCC cells we demonstrate that alphavbeta6 integrin down-regulates MMP-13 expression at both mRNA and protein level. Although expressing less MMP-13, beta6-transfected cells were found to have similar collagenolytic activity as control cells and invade at similar levels through type I collagen. Growth of the tumour cells in organotypic culture and confocal microscopy confirmed low levels of MMP-13 in cells with high alphavbeta6 expression. Furthermore, human squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue with high expression of alphavbeta6 showed lower MMP-13 levels than carcinomas with low levels of alphavbeta6. Our results suggest that alphavbeta6 down-regulates MMP-13 expression in OSCC cells and that MMP-13 is not essential for the degradation of type I collagen by OSCC cells.
Germline mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are thought to account for a large portion of familial breast cancer. The increased risk of breast cancer in women carrying such mutations suggests that these proteins play a critical role in the growth regulation of mammary epithelial cells. Another protein, Stat5a, is known to be essential for growth and terminal differentiation of breast epithelial cells. Here we show that Stat5a forms a complex with both BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast epithelial cells upon stimulation with prolactin. In addition, we show that the activity of Stat5a on the beta-casein promoter is modulated by both BRCA1 and BRCA2. This interaction may be important during the expansion and terminal differentiation of breast epithelial cells, as happens during pregnancy and lactation.
PURPOSE: Azurocidin, released by neutrophils during leukocyte-endothelial interaction, is a main cause of neutrophil-evoked vascular leakage. Its role in the retina, however, is unknown. METHODS: Brown Norway rats received intravitreal injections of azurocidin and vehicle control. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) dye technique 1, 3, and 24 hours after intravitreal injection. To block azurocidin, aprotinin was injected intravenously before the intravitreal injections. To investigate whether azurocidin plays a role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced BRB breakdown, rats were treated intravenously with aprotinin, followed by intravitreal injection of VEGF(164). BRB breakdown was quantified 24 hours later. To investigate whether azurocidin may mediate BRB breakdown in early diabetes, aprotinin or vehicle was injected intravenously each day for 2 weeks to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and BRB breakdown was quantified. RESULTS: Intravitreal injection of azurocidin (20 microg) induced a 6.8-fold increase in vascular permeability compared with control at 1-3 hours (P
Dyslipidaemia remains a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and additional lipid-modifying treatments are warranted to further decrease the cardiovascular disease burden. We assessed the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a novel cholesterol esterase transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor TA-8995 in patients with mild dyslipidaemia.
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase 2 trial, we recruited patients (aged 18-75 years) from 17 sites (hospitals and independent clinical research organisations) in the Netherlands and Denmark with fasting LDL cholesterol levels between 2·5 mmol/L and 4·5 mmol/L, HDL cholesterol levels between 0·8 and 1·8 mmol/L and triglyceride levels below 4·5 mmol/L after washout of lipid-lowering treatments. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive one of the following nine treatments: a once a day dose of 1 mg, 2·5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg TA-8995 or matching placebo; 10 mg TA-8995 plus 20 mg atorvastatin; 10 mg TA-8995 plus 10 mg rosuvastatin or 20 mg atorvastatin or 10 mg rosuvastatin alone. We overencapsulated statins to achieve masking. The primary outcome was percentage change in LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol from baseline at week 12, analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01970215.
Between Aug 15, 2013, and Jan 10, 2014, 364 patients were enrolled. At week 12, LDL cholesterol levels were reduced by 27·4% in patients assigned to the 1 mg dose, 32·7% in patients given the 2·5 mg dose, 45·3% in those given the 5 mg dose, and 45·3% in those given the 10 mg dose (p
Comment In: Lancet. 2015 Aug 1;386(9992):412-426047976
Syntaxin18 (Stx18) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane bound SNARE protein involved in membrane trafficking between the ER and Golgi as well as in phagocytosis. Stx18 has also been shown to physically interact with proteins involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. These findings suggest the possible role of Stx18 in regulating cell growth. In this study, we used theoretically designed external guide sequence molecule which utilizes RNase P to cleave Stx18 mRNA and down-regulate Stx18 levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We showed that down-regulation of Stx18 leads to significant enhancement of growth in MCF-7 cells. Consistent with this finding was the observation that over-expression of Stx18 using the CMV promoter led to suppression of cell growth. Over-expressing Stx18 had no effect on c-myc mRNA expression and half-life, suggesting that the mechanism does not involve control at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level of the c-myc gene. Finally, we showed that Stx18 is over-expressed in clinical human breast cancer. Overall, this study showed that Stx18 plays a role in the growth of human breast cancer cells and provided the basis for further investigation in determining whether it can be used as a prognostic marker and as a molecular target in the treatment of breast cancer.
Interleukin (IL)-5 is thought to play important roles in asthma and to be a potential therapeutic target. An intratracheal injection of murine recombinant IL-5 (3-30 microg/animal) induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Brown Norway (BN) rats 24 h after administration. Bovine serum albumin (30pg/animal), used as reference material, did not cause any change. The reaction was not observed in F344 rats. The increase in the number of eosinophils did not accompany bronchial hyperreactivity in BN or F344 rats. Prednisolone (3-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and emedastine (30 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the increased number of eosinophils induced by the IL-5 challenge. These results suggest that IL-5 is a potent inducer of eosinophils in the airway of BN rats. Prednisolone and emedastine are effective against IL-5-induced eosinophilia.
To estimate the role of uncoupling proteins in aging rat heart recovery from prolonged ischemia we used genipin application during Langendorfpreparation. It was shown that genipin in dose-depended manner depressed coronary flow, heart rate and cardiac diastolic function. Such effect was similar to that observed during myocardial Ca2+ overload by gradually elevated CaCl2, in perfusion solution. Moreover, postischemic disturbances of cardiodynamic parameters, oxygen cost of myocardial work were much increased in genipin pretreated hearts that in control ones. Thus, genipin inhibition of UCP2 activity has cardiodepressive effects that imply UCPs in cardiac calcium regulation.
CONTEXT: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death in the world. Variants in the 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) gene are associated with risk of MI. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an inhibitor of FLAP on levels of biomarkers associated with MI risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of an inhibitor of FLAP (DG-031) in MI patients who carry at-risk variants in the FLAP gene or in the leukotriene A4 hydrolase gene. Of 268 patients screened, 191 were carriers of at-risk variants in FLAP (87%) or leukotriene A4 hydrolase (13%). Individuals were enrolled in April 2004 and were followed up by designated cardiologists from a university hospital in Iceland until September 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were first randomized to receive 250 mg/d of DG-031, 500 mg/d of DG-031, 750 mg/d of DG-031, or placebo. After a 2-week washout period, patients received DG-031 if they had received placebo first or placebo if they had received DG-031 first. Treatment periods lasted for 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in levels of biomarkers associated with risk of MI. RESULTS: In response to 750 mg/d of DG-031, production of leukotriene B4 was significantly reduced by 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10%-39%; P = .003) and myeloperoxidase was significantly reduced by 12% (95% CI, 2%-21%; P = .02). The higher 2 doses of DG-031 produced a nonsignificant reduction in C-reactive protein (16%; 95% CI, -2% to 31%; P = .07) at 2 weeks. However, there was a more pronounced reduction (25%; 95% CI, 5%-40%; P = .02) in C-reactive protein at the end of the washout period that persisted for another 4 weeks thereafter. The FLAP inhibitor DG-031 was well tolerated and was not associated with any serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: In patients with specific at-risk variants of 2 genes in the leukotriene pathway, DG-031 led to significant and dose-dependent suppression of biomarkers that are associated with increased risk of MI events.
Comment In: JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2277-915886385