Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the distal half of chromosome arm 11q is frequent in a variety of human tumors, including breast cancer, and is often associated with poor prognosis. In an ongoing attempt to locate and characterize the main target genes within this chromosome region, we first looked for aberrations in known genes either suggested to be involved in tumorigenesis or shown to suppress tumor formation. We examined 31 primary breast tumors showing LOH in 11q21-24 for mutations in the MRE11A, CHK1, PPP2R1B, and TSLC1 genes. The absence of intragenic alterations related to cancer led us next to evaluate possible gene silencing resulting from promoter region CpG hypermethylation, using the bisulfite sequencing technique. In addition to the four genes mentioned above, we also analyzed the ATM gene, which had been investigated for certain germline mutations in an earlier study. Only the TSLC1 promoter region exhibited aberrant methylation patterns, and altogether 33% (10/30) of the successfully analyzed tumors showed evidence of elevated levels of TSLC1 CpG methylation. Ten percent (3/30) of the tumors showed significantly increased methylation. Thus, as has been shown in lung and some other forms of cancer, hypermethylation of the TSLC1 promoter region is also frequently a second hit along with LOH in breast cancer.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the leading cause of cancer death in women. Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations strikingly increase OC risk (with lifetime risk estimates ranging at 10-60%). Mutation 1100delC in CHEK2 gene was shown to be associated with breast cancer in women carrying this mutation. Knowledge of the nature and frequency of population-specific mutations in these genes is a critical step in the development of simple and inexpensive diagnostic approaches to DNA analysis. The frequencies of 185delAG, 300T>G, 4153delA, 4158A>G, 5382insC mutations in BRCA1 gene, 695insT and 6174delT mutations in BRCA2 gene and 1100delC mutation in CHEK2 gene were analyzed using biochips in Russian OC patients. We studied 68 women who received a diagnosis of epithelial OC and 19 women with primary multiple tumors involving the ovaries. The 185delAG, 300T>G, 4153delA and 5382insC in BRCA1 gene were identified. The most prevailing mutation was 5382insC in BRCA1 gene (87.5% of all BRCA1 mutations OC patients, 50.0% in patients with primary multiple tumors involving the ovaries). No mutations in BRCA2 and CHEK2 genes were detected.
Previous results from our genetic analyses using pedigrees from a French Canadian population suggested that the interval delimited by markers on chromosome 12, D12S86 and D12S378, was the most probable genomic region to contain a susceptibility gene for affective disorders. Association studies with microsatellite markers using a case/control sample from the same population (n = 427) revealed significant allelic associations between the bipolar phenotype and marker NBG6. Since this marker is located in intron 9 of the P2RX7 gene, we analyzed the surrounding genomic region for the presence of polymorphisms in regulatory, coding and intron/exon junction sequences. Twenty four (24) SNPs were genotyped in a case/control sample and 12 SNPs in all pedigrees used for linkage analysis. Allelic, genotypic or family-based association studies suggest the presence of two susceptibility loci, the P2RX7 and CaMKK2 genes. The strongest association was observed in bipolar families at the non-synonymous SNP P2RX7-E13A (rs2230912, P-value = 0.000708), which results from an over-transmission of the mutant G-allele to affected offspring. This Gln460Arg polymorphism occurs at an amino acid that is conserved between humans and rodents and is located in the C-terminal domain of the P2X7 receptor, known to be essential for normal P2RX7 function.
A recently described form of Parkinson's disease - PARK8 - is caused by mutations in the novel LRRK2 gene on chromosome 12q12. The most common mutation in this gene is the substitution G2019S and we studied it for the first time in a large group of Russian Slavonic patients (311 patients) with Parkinson's disease including 295 sporadic and 16 familial cases. The mutation LRRK2-G2019S was identified in 1% of patients examined (3 cases) and was not found in a group of population control. The clinical picture of all patients with the LRRK2-G2019S mutation was typical for levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and age of disease onset varied widely (from 39 to 71 years). Two different PARK8-linked haplotypes were found in carriers of the mutation that suggested the independent origin of the G2019S mutation on different chromosomes. The identification of mutations in the LRRK2 gene in patients with "ordinary" sporadic Parkinson's disease has serious implications for medical genetic counseling and prognosis in respective families.
Mutations in the Leucine Reach Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most frequent cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the precise physiological and pathological role of LRRK2 is unclear, a direct link between mutant LRRK2 and apoptosis has been suggested. Using flow cytometric analysis (PI+Annexin V(FITC)) we showed increased spontaneous apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with LRRK.2-associated PD compared to controls after 24 (P
Clinical case reports of parkinsonism co-occurring with hemizygous 22q11.2 deletions and the associated multisystem syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), suggest that 22q11.2 deletions may lead to increased risk of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The frequency of PD and its neuropathological presentation remain unknown in this common genetic condition.
To evaluate a possible association between 22q11.2 deletions and PD.
An observational study of the occurrence of PD in the world's largest cohort of well-characterized adults with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS (n = 159 [6 with postmortem tissue]; age range, 18.1-68.6 years) was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Rare postmortem brain tissue from individuals with 22q11.2DS and a clinical history of PD was investigated for neurodegenerative changes and compared with that from individuals with no history of a movement disorder.
A clinical diagnosis of PD made by a neurologist and neuropathological features of PD. RESULTS Adults with 22q11.2DS had a significantly elevated occurrence of PD compared with standard population estimates (standardized morbidity ratio = 69.7; 95% CI, 19.0-178.5). All cases showed early onset and typical PD symptom pattern, treatment response, and course. All were negative for family history of PD and known pathogenic PD-related mutations. The common use of antipsychotics in patients with 22q11.2DS to manage associated psychiatric symptoms delayed diagnosis of PD by up to 10 years. Postmortem brain tissue revealed classic loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in all 3 postmortem 22q11.2DS-PD cases. Typical a-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies were present in the expected distribution in 2 cases but absent in another.
These findings suggest that 22q11.2 deletions represent a novel genetic risk factor for early-onset PD with variable neuropathological presentation reminiscent of LRRK2-associated PD neuropathology. Individuals with early-onset PD and classic features of 22q11.2DS should be considered for genetic testing, and those with a known 22q11.2 deletion should be monitored for the development of parkinsonian symptoms. Molecular studies of the implicated genes, including DGCR8, may help shed light on the underlying pathophysiology of PD in 22q11.2DS and idiopathic PD.
The ATM kinase has an essential role in maintaining genomic integrity. Loss of both ATM alleles results in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a rare autosomal recessive neuroimmunologic disorder associated with cancer susceptibility. Individuals heterozygous for germline ATM mutations have been reported to have an increased risk for malignancy, in particular, female breast cancer. In the current study, a full mutation analysis of the ATM gene was carried out in patients from 121 breast or breast-ovarian cancer families. We discovered that the combination of 5557G-->A in cis position with IVS38-8 T-->C was associated with bilateral breast cancer (OR = 10.2; 95% CI = 3.1-33.8; p = 0.001). As the 5557G-->A change has been reported to affect an exonic splicing enhancer, we hypothesized that the observed composite allele could have some effect on the correct splicing of exon 39. However, no aberrant transcripts were detected, but ATM expression levels of lymphoblast cell lines from heterozygous carriers of this combination allele were lower than from noncarriers (p = 0.09). Lowered gene expression levels may have direct influence on the activities in DNA damage recognition and response pathways, as well as other genome integrity maintenance functions. Based on the results, we propose a cancer risk-modifying effect for the ATM 5557G-->A, IVS38-8T-->C composite allele.
Mutations in the ATM gene are responsible for the autosomal recessive disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). Mutations in different ethnic groups are distributed along the entire length of the large, 66 exon ATM gene. In this study, A-T patients from 16 Russian families were assessed for immunological status and ATM haplotype analysis, and screened for ATM mutations. Haplotype analysis was performed to enhance the efficiency of mutation detection. Mutations predicted to cause disease were identified in 19 of 32 alleles (59%), including a truncating mutation (c.5932G>T) that was identified in 8/32 (25%) alleles both by haplotype analysis and mutation screening. This mutation has been found in low abundance in other European A-T cohorts suggesting that this founder-effect mutation may be of Russian origin. The abundance of this mutation may allow for large-scale screening of cancer patients to help clarify the role of ATM in breast and other cancers. Nine of the remaining mutations were previously unreported, and add to the multitude of unique mutations found throughout the gene.