In morbid obesity conservative therapy often fails to reduce overweight permanently. As a consequence, several bariatric surgical procedures have been developed to achieve permanent excess weight loss. Among these, the laparoscopic restrictive procedures seem to be the least invasive. The aim of this prospective study was to assess and analyze the effects, complications, and outcomes after the implantation of the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) in long-term follow-up.
All consecutive patients with implantation of a SAGB between August 1996 and August 2002 were prospectively investigated. The placement of the SAGB was done by laparoscopy in all cases. Success was rated by the reduction of body mass index (BMI) excess weight loss (EWL), and reduction of comorbidities. "Nonresponders" to SAGB were defined as
PURPOSE: To examine after-cataract and eye growth in lensectomized newborn rabbits implanted with capsule tension rings of different sizes. SETTING: S:t Eriks Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. METHODS: Two groups of 24-day-old rabbits were used. In Group 1 (n = 9), lensectomy was performed in both eyes. In one randomly selected eye, an open poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) capsule tension ring with a 7.0 mm diameter and 0.13 mm thickness was implanted in the capsular bag. The other eye was left aphakic. In Group 2 (n = 10), an open PMMA capsule tension ring with a 10.0 mm diameter and 0.13 mm thickness was implanted in one randomly selected eye, and the other eye was left aphakic. Axial length, corneal diameter, corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in all eyes preoperatively and 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery. The wet mass of the after-cataract was measured at 3 months. Three Group 1 eyes and four Group 2 eyes developed secondary glaucoma and were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Axial growth did not differ significantly between the eyes implanted with the 7.0 mm ring and the aphakic eyes (mean difference 0.01 mm; F3;15 = 0.02; P > .25). Corneal diameter also did not differ (two-way analysis of variance [ANOVA]). Axial length growth was less in the eyes implanted with the 10.0 mm ring than in the aphakic eyes (mean difference 1.05 mm; F3;15 = 2.06; P .25; two-way ANOVA). Amount of after-cataract did not differ significantly between the aphakic eyes and the eyes implanted with the 7.0 mm ring. It was significantly less in the eyes with the 10.0 mm ring than in those with the 7.0 mm ring (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and in the aphakic eyes (P
The Danish Pacemaker Register was established in January 1982, and the 11 implanting centers in Denmark report to the Register on a continuous basis by use of the European Pacemaker Patient Identification Card proposed by the European Working Group on Cardiac Pacing. As of May 1994, the Register contained data on 18,053 lead implants performed in Denmark, i.e., 1,253 (7%) lead implants before 1982, and all the 16,800 initial lead implants since 1982 on 17,020 generators in 15,366 patients for a total of 12,188 (67.5%) ventricular unipolar, 3,178 (17.6%) ventricular bipolar, 1,316 (7.3%) atrial unipolar, and 1,371 (7.6%) atrial bipolar leads. Preformed J shaped leads were used in 3.5% of the atrial implants and active fixation in
The rehabilitation field has not always been regarded as the most glamorous or commercially promising section of medical care. But changing attitudes and demographics in many industrial countries have led to increased recognition of opportunity to provide services for individuals with disabilities and those in need of chronic care. As hospitals are under increasing pressure to offer rehabilitation services, this article focuses on three different technologies developed in three different countries, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Thirty-eight women undergoing augmentation mammaplasty, consecutively operated on at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Malmö, Sweden, were studied preoperatively regarding medical history, personality, psychosocial and psychiatric characteristics. Thirty-six of these patients were interviewed one year postoperatively. Thirty-three age-matched women operated on with minor surgical out-patient procedures were used as a contrast group. The mammaplasty patients generally came from insecure homes with conflicts between parents and unsatisfactory emotional relations to both parents. Their educational as well as income level was significantly lower than the contrast group and they were socially isolated. Their sexual adaptation seemed to have been hampered by their sensitivity reactions towards their breasts but nonetheless most of them lived in stable heterosexual relations. Generally the augmentation mammaplasty patients were not psychiatrically abnormal apart from the negative evaluation of their physical attractiveness. The great majority of the women, 86%, were satisfied with the results of surgery. Postoperatively the patients changed their style of dressing, extended their leisure time activities and social contacts, improved their sexual life and relations to their spouse. Postoperative increase of nervous symptoms was reported by 39% of the patients, but about as many patients, 36%, reported decreased nervous symptoms. Difficulties in accepting the surgical result, sexual dysfunctions and negative mental reactions proved to be associated with specific personality characteristics. Various factors have previously been proposed as being usable in the prediction of adverse reactions after augmentation mammaplasty. None of these factors, however, proved in this study to correlate with postoperative maladaptation. A need for increased methodological stringency in predictor studies is indicated.
Barber-surgeons have existed as a medical profession in multiple countries for centuries. This article outlines the exciting history of the barber-surgeons in Finland, focusing on a time frame covering over 600 years, from the Middle Ages until the last barber-surgeon in Finland finished his practice during the Second World War. The barber-surgeons were the first healthcare professionals who focused on the healthcare of soldiers during times of both peace and war. They were able to treat wounds, conduct minor and even major surgeries and perform amputations. The development of the profession and the education and skills of the barber-surgeons are summed up and illuminated. New genealogical sources are also reviewed to profile the barber-surgeons as men, married and of multinational origin. This review summarizes the history of the profession, who the barber-surgeons in Finland were and where they came from. It concludes by noting that the barber-surgeons had a remarkable impact on the development of the professions of surgeons and physicians as well as on the development of occupational healthcare as a whole. However, these impacts are not sufficiently appreciated today.