The E-cadherin (CDH1) gene has been associated with prostate carcinogenesis. The C/A polymorphism--160 base pairs relative to the transcription start site has been shown to decrease gene transcription. We analyzed the association between this polymorphism and the risk of sporadic, familial (2 close relatives) and hereditary (3 or more close relatives) prostate cancer. We combined data from 3 population-based epidemiologic studies in Sweden encompassing altogether 1,036 prostate cancer cases and 669 controls that were genotyped for the short nucleotide polymorphism. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated through unconditional logistic regression. We found no significant association between the A-allele and sporadic (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2) or familial (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.9-2.2) prostate cancer. In contrast, risk of hereditary cancer was increased among heterozygote CA carriers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.7) and particularly among homozygote AA carriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4-4.9). Our data indicate that the -160 single nucleotide polymorphism in CDH1 is a low-penetrant prostate cancer susceptibility gene that might explain a proportion of familial and notably hereditary prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: A positive family history is one of the strongest known risk factors for prostate carcinoma in addition to age and race. In this article, the authors present age specific risks for developing prostate carcinoma in families with an aggregation of prostate carcinoma. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study including 5706 sons of Swedish men who had been diagnosed with prostate carcinoma between 1959 and 1963 were used. The age specific incidence rates were calculated for different cohorts of prostate carcinoma families with respect to patient age at the time of prostate carcinoma diagnosis and the number of men affected. RESULTS: Both patient age at the time of prostate carcinoma diagnosis and the number of men affected in the families influenced the risk of developing prostate carcinoma significantly. Unaffected men in families with two or more cases of prostate carcinoma have a very high risk of developing prostate carcinoma at a young age. The cumulative risks in these families are 5%, 15%, and 30% by ages 60 years, 70 years, and 80 years, respectively, compared with only 0.45%, 3%, and 10%, respectively, at the same ages in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study together with data from the literature support the case for the screening of high risk families. The authors also conclude that men with at least two close relatives with prostate carcinoma have a very high risk of developing prostate carcinoma before age 70 years. The authors recommend these men undergo testing for prostate specific antigen and a digital rectal examination annually between the ages 50 years 70 years, ages at which patients usually are offered curative treatment for localized tumors. Screening of individuals before age 50 years may be recommended in selected families with a history of prostate carcinoma of very early onset.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogeneous trait for which several susceptibility loci have been implicated by genome-wide linkage and association studies. The genomic region 13q14 is frequently deleted in tumour tissues of both sporadic and familial PCa patients and is consequently recognised as a possible locus of tumour suppressor gene(s). Deletions of this region have been found in many other cancers. Recently, we showed that homozygous carriers for the T442C variant of the ARLTS1 gene (ADP-ribosylation factor-like tumour suppressor protein 1 or ARL11, located at 13q14) are associated with an increased risk for both unselected and familial PCa. Furthermore, the variant T442C was observed in greater frequency among malignant tissue samples, PCa cell lines and xenografts, supporting its role in PCa tumourigenesis. In this study, 84 PCa cases and 15 controls were analysed for ARLTS1 expression status in blood-derived RNA. A statistically significant (p?=?0.0037) decrease of ARLTS1 expression in PCa cases was detected. Regulation of ARLTS1 expression was analysed with eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci) methods. Altogether fourteen significant cis-eQTLs affecting the ARLTS1 expression level were found. In addition, epistatic interactions of ARLTS1 genomic variants with genes involved in immune system processes were predicted with the MDR program. In conclusion, this study further supports the role of ARLTS1 as a tumour suppressor gene and reveals that the expression is regulated through variants localised in regulatory regions.
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Dietary intake of marine fatty acids from fish may protect against prostate cancer development. We studied this association and whether it is modified by genetic variation in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. We assessed dietary intake of fish among 1,499 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,130 population controls in Sweden. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and genotyped in available blood samples for 1,378 cases and 782 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Multiplicative and additive interactions between fish intake and COX-2 SNPs on prostate cancer risk were evaluated. Eating fatty fish (e.g., salmon-type fish) once or more per week, compared to never, was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.76). The OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of marine fatty acids intake was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51-0.97). We found a significant interaction (p
Prostate cancer has a strong hereditary component, but it has been proposed that hormonal influences in utero may contribute to offspring risk. We investigated the associations between birth characteristics and the risk of prostate cancer in twins, and whether possible associations could be confounded by familial factors, such as shared environment and common genes.
All like-sexed male twins in the Swedish Twin Registry, born from 1926 to 1958 and alive in 1973, were eligible. Data were obtained from birth records, and 11,420 male twins with reliable birth weight data were included in the final study population. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between birth characteristics and risk of prostate cancer. Paired analysis was done to account for potential confounding by familial factors.
Compared with twins with a birth weight of 2,500 to 2,999 g, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for twins with a higher birth weight (>or=3,000 g) corresponded to 1.22 (0.94-1.57). In analyses within twin pairs, in which both twins had a birth weight of >or=2,500 g, a 500 g increase in birth weight was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer within dizygotic twin pairs (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.02-1.57), but not within monozygotic twin pairs (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.61-1.84).
High birth weight is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. The difference in risk within dizygotic and monozygotic twin pairs may be due to genetic factors playing an important role in this association.
Recently, variants in CHEK2 gene were shown to associate with sporadic prostate cancer in the USA. In the present study from Finland, we found that the frequency of 1100delC, a truncating variant that abrogates the kinase activity, was significantly elevated among 120 patients with hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) (four out of 120 (3.3%); odds ratio 8.24; 95% confidence interval 1.49-45.54; P=0.02) compared to 480 population controls. Suggestive evidence of segregation between the 1100delC mutation and prostate cancer was seen in all positive families. In addition, I157T variant had significantly higher frequency among HPC patients (13 out of 120 (10.8%); odds ratio 2.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06-4.27; P=0.04) than the frequency 5.4% seen in the population controls. The results suggest that CHEK2 variants are low-penetrance prostate cancer predisposition alleles that contribute significantly to familial clustering of prostate cancer at the population level.
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It has been proposed that cancer is more common in some families than in others, but the hypothesis lacks population level support. We use a novel approach by studying any cancers in large three-generation families and thus are able to find risks even though penetrance is low.
Individuals in the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database were organised in three generations and the relative risk (RR) of cancer was calculated to the persons in the third generation by the numbers of patients with cancer in generations 1, 2 and 3.
The RRs for any cancer in generation 3 increased by the numbers of affected relatives, reaching 1.61 when at least seven relatives were diagnosed. The median patient had two affected relatives, and 7.0% had five or more affected relatives with an RR of 1.46, which translated to an absolute risk of 21.5% compared with 14.7% in population by age 65 years. For prostate cancer, the RR was 2.85 with four or more affected family members with any cancer, and it increased to 14.42 with four or more concordant cancers in family members. RRs for prostate cancer were approximately equal (2.70 vs 2.85) if a man had one relative with prostate cancer or four or more relatives diagnosed with any cancer.
A strong family history of cancer, regardless of tumour type, increases cancer risk of family members and calls for mechanistic explanations. Our data provide tools for counselling of patients with cancer with both low and high familiar risks.
Disease risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified from genome-wide association studies have the potential to be used for disease risk prediction. An important feature of these risk-associated SNPs is their weak individual effect but stronger cumulative effect on disease risk. Several approaches are commonly used to model the combined effect in risk prediction, but their performance is unclear. We compared two methods to model the combined effect of 14 prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs and family history for the estimation of absolute risk for prostate cancer in a population-based case-control study in Sweden (2,899 cases and 1,722 controls). Method 1 weighs each risk allele equally using a simple method of counting the number of risk alleles, whereas method 2 weighs each risk SNP differently based on its odds ratio. We found considerable differences between the two methods. Absolute risk estimates from method 1 were generally higher than those of method 2, especially among men at higher risk. The difference in the overall discriminative performance, measured by area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic, was small between method 1 (0.614) and method 2 (0.618), P = 0.20. However, the performance of these two methods in identifying high-risk individuals (2- or 3-fold higher than average risk), measured by positive predictive values, was higher for method 2 than for method 1. These results suggest that method 2 is superior to method 1 in estimating absolute risk if the purpose of risk prediction is to identify high-risk individuals.
BACKGROUND: Recently identified associations of prostate cancer risk with several genes involved in innate immunity support a role of inflammation in the etiology of prostate cancer. Considering inflammation is regulated by a complex system of gene products, we hypothesize sequence variants in many other genes of this pathway are associated with prostate cancer. METHODS: We evaluated 9,275 SNPs in 1,086 genes of the inflammation pathway using a MegAllele genotyping system among 200 familial cases and 200 unaffected controls selected from a large Swedish case-control population (CAPS). RESULTS: We found that significantly more than the expected numbers of SNPs were significant at a nominal P-value of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1, providing overall support for our hypothesis. The excess was largest when using a more liberal nominal P-value (0.1); we observed 992 significant SNPs compared with the 854 significant SNPs expected by chance, and this difference was significant based on a permutation test (P = 0.0025). We also began the effort of differentiating true associated SNPs by selecting a small subset of significant SNPs (N = 26) and genotyped these in an independent sample of approximately 1,900 CAPS1 subjects. We were able to confirm 3 of these 26 SNPs. It is expected that many more true associated SNPs will be confirmed among the 992 significant SNPs identified in our pathway screen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first objective support for an association between prostate cancer and multiple modest-effect genes in inflammatory pathways.
BACKGROUND: Family-based linkage studies, association studies, and studies of tumors have highlighted human chromosome 8q as a genomic region of interest for prostate cancer susceptibility loci. Recently, a locus at 8q24, characterized by both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a microsatellite marker, was shown to be associated with prostate cancer risk in Icelandic, Swedish, and U.S. samples. Although the data were provocative, the U.S. samples were not population based, which precludes assessment of the potential contribution of this locus to prostate cancer incidence in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed both markers in a population-based, case-control study of middle-aged men from King County, Washington. RESULTS: Overall, there was a significant positive association between the A allele of the SNP rs1447295 and prostate cancer risk [odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-2.0] but no significant association with the microsatellite DG8S737. However, significant associations were observed for both markers in men with high Gleason scores. Adjusting for age, first-degree family history of prostate cancer, and prostate cancer screening history, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8) for the A allele of the SNP and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-2.8) for the -10 allele of the microsatellite. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the locus on chromosome 8q24 harbors a genetic variant associated with prostate cancer and that the microsatellite marker is a stronger risk factor for aggressive prostate cancers defined by poorly differentiated tumor morphology.