To report outcomes for 1,111 men treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy (BT) at a single institution.
A total of 1,111 men (median age, 63) were treated with iodine-125 prostate BT for low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer between March 1999 and November 2008. Median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 5.4 ng/ml (range, 0.9-26.1). T stage was T1c in 66% and T2 in 34% of patients. Gleason score was 6 in 90.1% and 7 or 8 in 9.9% of patients. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (2-6 months course) was used in 10.1% of patients and combined external radiotherapy (45 Gy) with BT (110 Gy) in 4.1% (n = 46) of patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards were used to determine predictors of failure.
Median follow-up was 42 months (range, 6-114), but for biochemical freedom from relapse, a minimum PSA test follow-up of 30 months was required (median 54; n = 776). There were 27 failures, yielding an actuarial 7-year disease-free survival rate of 95.2% (96 at risk beyond 84 months). All failures underwent repeat 12-core transrectal ultrasound -guided biopsies, confirming 8 local failures. On multivariate analysis, Gleason score was the only independent predictor of failure (p = 0.001; hazard ratio, 4.8 (1.9-12.4). Median International Prostate Symptom score from 12 to 108 months ranged between 3 and 9. Of the men reporting baseline potency, 82.8% retained satisfactory erectile function beyond 5 years.
Iodine-125 prostate BT is a highly effective treatment option for favorable- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and is associated with maintenance of good urinary and erectile functions.
Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa.
In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications and patients eventually undergoing curative treatment. The secondary outcome was cost.
The 5 year cumulative incidence of discontinued AS in a competing-risk model was 40%. During the first 5 years of AS patients underwent a median of two biopsy sets, and patients were seen in an outpatient clinic including PSA testing three to four times annually. In total, 38 of the 406 biopsy sessions led to hospital admission and 87 of the 317 patients required treatment for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). With a median of 3.7 years' follow-up, the total cost of AS was euro (€) 1,240,286. Assuming all patients had otherwise undergone primary radical prostatectomy, the cost difference favoured AS with a net benefit of €662,661 (35% reduction).
AS entails a close clinical follow-up with a considerable risk of rebiopsy complication, treatment of BOO and subsequent delayed definitive therapy. This risk should be weighed against a potential economic benefit and reduction in the risk of overtreatment compared to immediate radical treatment.
Active surveillance is a solution to the widely acknowledged problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant disease which accompanies early detection of prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy. It is an approach to the management of favorable-risk prostate cancer which uses the opportunity provided by the long natural history of the disease to incorporate a period of initial observation into patient management. The basic concept is that most men diagnosed with low-grade, small-volume disease are not destined to have any clinical manifestations of the condition during their lifetime. However, a subset of patients with favorable-risk prostate cancer is at risk, due to either the presence of higher-risk disease not apparent at diagnosis or progression to a more aggressive phenotype over time. These patients can be identified with reasonable accuracy by close follow-up, including serial PSAs and biopsies, and treated effectively in most cases. The rationale, patient selection, method of follow-up, triggers for intervention, and recent results of this approach will be reviewed.
Active surveillance has evolved to become a standard of care for favorable-risk prostate cancer. This is a summary of the rationale, method, and results of active surveillance beginning in 1995 with the first prospective trial of this approach. This was a prospective, single-arm cohort study. Patients were managed with an initial expectant approach. Definitive intervention was offered to those patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of less than 3 years, Gleason score progression (to 4+3 or greater), or unequivocal clinical progression. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were applied to the data. Since November 1995, 450 patients have been managed with active surveillance. The cohort included men under 70 with favorable-risk disease and men of age more than 70 with favorable- or intermediate-risk cancer (Gleason score 3+4 or PSA 10-15). Median follow-up is 6.8 years (range 1-16 years). Overall survival is 78.6%. Ten-year prostate cancer actuarial survival is 97.2%. Five of 450 patients (1.1%) have died of prostate cancer. Thirty percent of patients have been reclassified as higher-risk patients and offered definitive therapy. The commonest indication for treatment was a PSA doubling time less than 3 years (48%) or Gleason upgrading (26%). Of 117 patients treated radically, the PSA failure rate was 50%. This represents 13% of the total cohort. Most PSA failures occurred early; at 2 years, 44% of the treated patients had PSA failure. The hazard ratio for non-prostate cancer mortality to prostate cancer mortality was 18.6 at 10 years. In conclusion, we observed a very low rate of prostate cancer mortality in an intermediate time frame. Among the one-third of patients who were reclassified as higher risk and retreated, PSA failure was relatively common. However, other-cause mortality accounted for almost all of the deaths. Further studies are warranted to improve the identification of patients who harbor more aggressive disease in spite of favorable clinical parameters at diagnosis [reproduced from Klotz (1) with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health].
Intermittent dosing may reduce the adverse events (AEs) of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
To compare intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) and continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) with regard to health-related quality of life (QoL).
A total of 852 men with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) were enrolled to receive goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 d for 24 wk. A total of 554 patients whose prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decreased to 20 ng/ml or above baseline.
QoL was monitored with a validated Cleary 30-item questionnaire and analysed by the Mann-Whitney U test, 0.5 standard deviation rule, and repeated measures analysis of variance. AEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were analysed by the chi-square test.
Median follow-up was 65 mo. Significant differences in QoL emerged in activity limitation, physical capacity, and sexual functioning, favouring IAD. No significant differences emerged in the prevalence of AEs: 87 patients in the IAD arm (31.8%) and 95 in the CAD arm (33.9%) had cardiovascular (CV) AEs (p=0.59), with 25 (9.1%) and 29 (10.4%) withdrawn (p=0.62), and 21 (7.7%) and 24 (8.6%) dying because of a CV event (p=0.70), respectively; bone fractures occurred in 19 (6.9%) and 15 (5.4%) patients (p=0.44), respectively. Hot flushes or night sweats were the most common ADRs (47.1% vs 50.4%; p=0.44). Erectile dysfunction (15.7% vs 7.9%; p=0.042) and depressed mood (2.2 vs 0%; p=0.032) were more common in the IAD arm.
IAD showed benefits in the treatment of advanced PCa with respect to QoL. The prevalence of AEs was not significantly lower with IAD.
To establish normal reference values for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Swedish population we investigated 878 healthy men, 56-75 years of age. They were randomly selected from a population of 9171 males in this group. Cancer of the prostate was excluded by digital rectal examination. When digital rectal examination was suspicious for carcinoma of the prostate and/or serum PSA > 4 micrograms l-1, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. Central values, values of variance and reference limits were defined by a non-parametric method in four age groups. A strong positive correlation between PSA values and age was found and the variance increased with age. The relationship between PSA value and age was non-linear. For the age group 56-60 the upper reference limit (95th percentile) was 4.6 micrograms l-1 (confidence interval, CI: 3.9-5.5). For the age groups 61-65, 66-70 and 71-75 the corresponding values were 4.4 (3.8-5.2), 7.6 (6.5-8.9) and 8.4 micrograms l-1 (7.2-9.8) respectively. For the age groups studied the increment over time of the PSA value was 2-8% per year depending on age, with an average increment per year over 15 years of 4.3%. Overall, 11% of our reference sample had a serum PSA level > 4 micrograms l-1. We consider our study population to be representative for a normal Swedish male population in these age groups.
Allopurinol reduces oxidative stress and may thus have an anti-inflammatory effect. Previous studies suggest that allopurinol use might decrease the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) among gout patients. We studied the association between allopurinol use and PCa incidence.
The cohort consists of 76,874 men without prevalent PCa, originally identified for the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (FinRSPC). The follow-up started at entry to the trial. We excluded men using allopurinol in the year before entry (wash-out). PCa cases detected during 1996-2015 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on tumor Gleason score and TNM stage were obtained from medical files. Information on PSA level was obtained from screening samples for men in the FinRSPC screening arm and from laboratory databases for men in the control arm. Information on BMI was based on a questionnaire sent to men in the FinRSPC screening arm in 2004-2008. Drug purchase information were obtained from the national prescription database. We used Cox regression (adjusted for age, FinRSPC trial arm, PCa family history and use of other medication) to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PCa risk by allopurinol use. We analyzed medication as a time-dependent variable to minimize immortal time bias.
There were 9062 new PCa diagnoses in the cohort. Follow-up time did not differ by allopurinol use (median 17?yr; IQR 11-19 vs median 17?yr; IQR 12.33-19). The risk of PCa did not differ by allopurinol use (multivariable adjusted HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.92-1.16). Allopurinol use did not associate with the risk of high-grade or metastatic cancer. Cumulative duration or average yearly dose of allopurinol use showed no association with PCa risk. No delayed risk associations were observed in the lag-time analyses.
We observed no difference in the PCa risk by allopurinol use.
To explore the extent to which biochemical testing is used to diagnose androgen deficiency before initiating treatment and to learn whether recommendations for clinical monitoring of men taking androgen therapy are being followed.
Population-based retrospective cohort study.
A total of 902 men who filled at least 2 prescriptions for androgen therapy.
Whether men had had baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone testing before initiation of therapy and whether men had been monitored during the first year of treatment.
Of the 902 men who filled first-time prescriptions during the study period, only 475 (52.7%) had ever had PSA or testosterone tests. Before starting therapy, 315 men (34.9%) had had PSA tests, and 152 men (16.9%) had had testosterone tests. Less than 1% of the entire sample had had 3 or more tests during the year following initiation of therapy.
Indications for androgen therapy in this population appear to be based on clinical symptoms rather than on demonstrated biochemical androgen deficiency. Recommendations for clinical monitoring of men taking androgen therapy are not followed consistently.
To obtain an estimate of prostate cancer prevalence when screening is applied to a workforce, we conducted a search of the English world literature from West Virginia University. Thirty-one papers which met selection criteria for screening were followed by histopathologic diagnosis. Publications using Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as a screening test were reviewed. The data from these papers were combined. Population characteristics were then selected to represent the demographics of a working population. Prostate cancer prevalence estimates for the demographics of a working population were calculated using a weighted mean after relevant studies lacked homogeneity and therefore failed meta-analysis. The expected prevalence of prostate cancer in a workplace surveillance population is 2.03% (95% C.I. from 1.69% to 2.37%). This information is useful to entities considering workplace surveillance. Selection bias, geographic location, and uncertainty in prediction of a representative workforce population may strongly influence estimates.