Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women.
We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health.
There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women.
This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required.
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To evaluate the effect of a four-week primary prevention programme on change in perceived health among employees at increased risk of incapacity for work.
A follow-up controlled study.
The data were collected from survey responses and registered data on demographic, work and health characteristics, and health-related behaviours.
Eight hundred and seventy-two participants and their 2440 propensity score-matched controls.
Multidisciplinary preventive programme of physical training and psychological education to adopt a healthier lifestyle, and to achieve greater aerobic capacity, muscle strength and endurance, as well as better self-management of stress.
Psychological distress, anxiety and suboptimal self-rated health.
The prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health, psychological distress and anxiety did not differ between the participants and controls before the intervention (22.6% vs. 22.8%, 26.6% vs. 29.0%, and 33.0% vs. 33.8%, respectively). Similarly, after the intervention, there were no group differences in the prevalence of self-rated health problems at the time of the short-term (mean 1.7 years, up to 4.6 years) or long-term (mean 5.8 years, up to 9.2 years) follow-up. Figures for prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health, psychological distress and anxiety in participants and controls at the time of the long-term follow-up were 33.8% vs. 28.9%, 25.1% vs. 24.9%, and 34.7% vs. 33.2%, respectively.
No beneficial effects on perceived health were observed for a four-week primary prevention programme widely used in Finland to reduce early retirement on health grounds.
Changes in employment status may be associated with changes in health-related lifestyle, but population level research of such associations is very limited. This study aimed to determine associations between lifestyle and five employment trajectories, i.e. 'stable', 'unstable', 'upward' 'downward' and 'chronic unemployment'.
A cohort of 10,100 employees was followed up for 5 years. Associations of the employment trajectories with changes in smoking, alcohol drinking, body weight, physical activity and sleep duration were assessed with analysis of variance for repeated measures and pairwise post hoc comparisons.
Smoking was the only lifestyle component that was not associated with employment trajectory. In both genders, sleep duration decreased during chronic unemployment and among those on a downward employment trajectory. In men, alcohol consumption also increased in these two groups and body weight increased in the latter group. In women, physical activity decreased among those on a downward trajectory. In contrast, an upward labour market trajectory was associated with healthy or no changes in lifestyle both in men and women.
Changes in lifestyle may contribute to development of the health gradients between the employed and unemployed, whereas unstable employment versus permanent employment does not incur risk of unhealthy lifestyle changes. In order to prevent widening of employment-related health inequalities, passages into employment should be facilitated and opportunities for health promotion should be improved among those trapped in or moving towards the labour market periphery.
This study examined whether indicators of poor health and health risk behaviors among hospital staff differ between the ward specialties.
Across 21 hospitals in Finland, 8003 employees (mean age 42 years, 87% women, 86% nurses) working in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, intensive care, and psychiatry responded to a baseline survey on health and health risk behaviors (response rate 70%). Responses were linked to records of sickness absence and medication over the following 12 months.
Psychiatric staff had higher odds of smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.14-3.12], high alcohol use (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.21-1.99), physical inactivity (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.53), chronic physical disease (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36), current or past mental disorders (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.50-2.17), and co-occurring poor health indicators (OR 2.65, 95% CI 2.08-3.37) as compared to those working in other specialties. They also had higher odds of sickness absence due to mental disorders (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.92) and depression (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02-2.55) at follow-up after adjustment for baseline health and covariates. Personnel in surgery had the lowest probability of morbidity. No major differences between specialties were found in the use of psychotropic medication.
The prevalence of hospital employees with an adverse health risk profile is higher in psychiatric wards than other specialties.
We examined whether the distinctive components of job control-decision authority, skill discretion, and predictability-were related to subsequent acute myocardial infarction (MI) events in a large population of initially heart disease-free industrial employees.
We prospectively examined the relation between the components of job control and acute MI among private-sector industrial employees. During an 18-year follow-up, 56 fatal and 316 nonfatal events of acute MI were documented among 7663 employees with no recorded history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (i.e., 1986).
After adjustment for demographics, psychological distress, prevalent medical conditions, lifestyle risk factors, and socioeconomic characteristics, low decision autonomy (P
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Departments of Public Health (Halava, Vahtera) and Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics (Korhonen, Huupponen), University of Turku, and Turku University Hospital (Huupponen Vahtera), Turku, Finland; Duke Clinical Research Institute (Setoguchi), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Pentti, Vahtera), Turku, Finland; the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (Kivimäki), University College London, London, UK firstname.lastname@example.org.
Easily detectable predictors of nonadherence to long-term drug treatment are lacking. We investigated the association between lifestyle factors and nonadherence to statin therapy among patients with and without cardiovascular comorbidities.
We included 9285 participants from the Finnish Public Sector Study who began statin therapy after completing the survey. We linked their survey data with data in national health registers. We used prescription dispensing data to determine participants' nonadherence to statin therapy during the first year of treatment (defined as
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