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Association between deliberate self-harm and violent criminality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283453
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 01;74(6):615-621
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-01-2017
Author
Hanna Sahlin
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Johan Bjureberg
Paul Lichtenstein
Yasmina Molero
Mina Rydell
Erik Hedman
Bo Runeson
Jussi Jokinen
Brjánn Ljótsson
Clara Hellner
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 01;74(6):615-621
Date
Jun-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age of Onset
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk
Self-Injurious Behavior - epidemiology - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Statistics as Topic
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Individuals who self-harm may have an increased risk of aggression toward others, but this association has been insufficiently investigated. More conclusive evidence may affect assessment, treatment interventions, and clinical guidelines.
To investigate the association between nonfatal self-harm and violent crime.
This population-based longitudinal cohort study, conducted from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2013, studied all Swedish citizens born between 1982 and 1998 who were 15 years and older (N?=?1?850?252). Individuals who emigrated from Sweden before the age of 15 years (n?=?104?051) or immigrated to Sweden after the age of 13 years (ie,
PubMed ID
28384711 View in PubMed
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The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114275
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Jun;16(3):679-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Claire A Coyne
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
cavoyne@indiana.eduIndiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Jun;16(3):679-89
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Development
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Maternal Age
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in adolescence
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23632141 View in PubMed
Less detail

Birth weight-breast cancer revisited: is the association confounded by familial factors?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149057
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Sep;18(9):2447-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Sara Oberg
Sven Cnattingius
Sven Sandin
Paul Lichtenstein
Anastasia Iliadou
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Box 281 Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. sara.oberg@ki.se
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Sep;18(9):2447-52
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Environment
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Pregnancy
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate whether the association between birth weight and the risk of breast cancer can be confounded by familial factors, such as shared environment and common genes.
Eligible were all female like-sexed twins of the Swedish Twin Registry, born during the period 1926-1958 and alive in 1973. Data were obtained from birth records, and the final study population with reliable birth weight data was made up of 11,923 twins. Hazard ratios (HR) for breast cancer according to birth weight were estimated through Cox regression, using robust SE to account for the dependence within twin pairs. Paired analysis was done to account for potential confounding by familial factors.
In the cohort analysis, a birth weight >or=3,000 g was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer diagnosed at or before 50 years [adjusted HR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.03-2.42] but not with breast cancer with a later onset (adjusted HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.57-1.12). From >or=2,500 g, a 500-g increase in birth weight conferred a HR of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16-2.27) for breast cancer diagnosed at or before 50 years. This risk remained in analysis within twin pairs (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.00-2.48).
In the present study, findings indicate that the association between birth weight and breast cancer risk, seen only in women diagnosed early (
PubMed ID
19690178 View in PubMed
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Birth weight, physical morbidity, and mortality: a population-based sibling-comparison study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105548
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Mar 1;179(5):550-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2014
Author
Quetzal A Class
Martin E Rickert
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian M D'Onofrio
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Mar 1;179(5):550-8
Date
Mar-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Male
Morbidity
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Associations between low birth weight (=2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity.
PubMed ID
24355331 View in PubMed
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Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264020
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;55(1):61-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Charlotte Skoglund
Qi Chen
Brian M D'Onofrio
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Jan;55(1):61-8
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Family
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mothers - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology - genetics
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Siblings
Smoking - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy (SDP) has consistently been associated with increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring, but recent studies indicate that this association might be due to unmeasured familial confounding.
A total of 813,030 individuals born in Sweden between 1992 and 2000 were included in this nationwide population-based cohort study. Data on maternal SDP and ADHD diagnosis were obtained from national registers and patients were followed up from the age of 3 to the end of 2009. Hazard Ratios (HRs) were estimated using stratified Cox regression models. Cousin and sibling data were used to control for unmeasured familial confounding.
At the population level maternal SDP predicted ADHD in offspring (HR(ModerateSDP) = 1.89; HR(HighSDP)= 2.50). This estimate gradually attenuated toward the null when adjusting for measured confounders (HR(ModerateSDP)= 1.62; HR(HighSDP)= 2.04), unmeasured confounders shared within the extended family (i.e., cousin comparison) (HR(ModerateSDP)= 1.45; HR(HighSDP)= 1.69), and unmeasured confounders within the nuclear family (i.e., sibling comparison) (HR(ModerateSDP)= 0.88; HR(HighSDP)= 0.84).
Our results suggest that the association between maternal SDP and offspring ADHD are due to unmeasured familial confounding.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25359172 View in PubMed
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Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminality: a population-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97107
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 May;67(5):529-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Brian M D'Onofrio
Amber L Singh
Anastasia Iliadou
Mats Lambe
Christina M Hultman
Martin Grann
Jenae M Neiderhiser
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. bmdonofr@indiana.edu
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 May;67(5):529-38
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Causality
Crime - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Kaplan-Meiers Estimate
Male
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology - etiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
CONTEXT: The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and offspring disruptive behaviors has been well documented, but it is unclear whether exposure to SDP or the effects of factors correlated with SDP account for the increased risk. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions was consistent with a causal connection or due to familial background factors by controlling for measured covariates and using a quasi-experimental approach. DESIGN: We used a population-based study of children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N = 609,372) to examine the association between SDP and offspring criminal convictions while controlling for measured traits of both parents. We also compared siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n = 50,339) to account for unmeasured familial factors that could account for the association. SETTING: Population-based study of all children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 with information on maternal SDP and offspring criminal convictions based on national registries collected by the Swedish government. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Children born in Sweden from 1983 to 1989 (N = 609,372) and siblings differentially exposed to SDP (n = 50,339). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Violent and nonviolent convictions, based on the Swedish National Crime Register, a register with detailed information on all convictions in the country. RESULTS: Moderate (hazard rate [HR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.34-2.60) and high (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.25-3.63) levels of maternal SDP were associated with an increased risk for offspring violent convictions, even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. There was no association between SDP and violent convictions, however, when comparing differentially exposed siblings (HR(moderate), 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79-1.30; HR(high), 1.03; 95% CI, 0.78-1.37). Smoking during pregnancy also was associated with nonviolent convictions in the entire population (HR(moderate), 1.62; 95% CI, 1.58-1.66; HR(high), 1.87; 95% CI, 1.82-1.92) and when controlling for covariates. But, there was no association when comparing siblings who were differentially exposed (HR(moderate), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.01; HR(high), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that familial background factors account for the association between maternal SDP and criminal convictions, not the specific exposure to SDP.
PubMed ID
20439834 View in PubMed
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Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring substance use and problems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119270
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;69(11):1140-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Brian M D'Onofrio
Martin E Rickert
Niklas Langström
Kelly L Donahue
Claire A Coyne
Henrik Larsson
Jarrod M Ellingson
Carol A Van Hulle
Anastasia N Iliadou
Paul J Rathouz
Benjamin B Lahey
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, 47405, USA. bmdonofr@indiana.edu
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;69(11):1140-50
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Bias (epidemiology)
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology - genetics
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Siblings
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Social Environment
Statistics as Topic
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Sweden
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous epidemiological, animal, and human cognitive neuroscience research suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) causes increased risk of substance use/problems in offspring.
To determine the extent to which the association between SDP and offspring substance use/problems depends on confounded familial background factors by using a quasi-experimental design.
We used 2 separate samples from the United States and Sweden. The analyses prospectively predicted multiple indices of substance use and problems while controlling for statistical covariates and comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize confounding.
Offspring of a representative sample of women in the United States (sample 1) and the total Swedish population born during the period from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 1995 (sample 2).
Adolescent offspring of the women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 6904) and all offspring born in Sweden during the 13-year period (n = 1,187,360).
Self-reported adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and early onset (before 14 years of age) of each substance (sample 1) and substance-related convictions and hospitalizations for an alcohol- or other drug-related problem (sample 2).
The same pattern emerged for each index of substance use/problems across the 2 samples. At the population level, maternal SDP predicted every measure of offspring substance use/problems in both samples, ranging from adolescent alcohol use (hazard ratio [HR](moderate), 1.32 [95% CI, 1.22-1.43]; HR(high), 1.33 [1.17-1.53]) to a narcotics-related conviction (HR(moderate), 2.23 [2.14-2.31]; HR(high), 2.97 [2.86-3.09]). When comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize genetic and environmental confounds, however, the association between SDP and each measure of substance use/problems was minimal and not statistically significant.
The association between maternal SDP and offspring substance use/problems is likely due to familial background factors, not a causal influence, because siblings have similar rates of substance use and problems regardless of their specific exposure to SDP.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23117635 View in PubMed
Less detail

A Family-Based Study of the Association Between Labor Induction and Offspring Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Low Academic Achievement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290705
Source
Behav Genet. 2017 Jul; 47(4):383-393
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-2017
Author
Kelsey K Wiggs
Martin E Rickert
Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
Brian T Bateman
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Larsson
Paul Lichtenstein
Anna Sara Oberg
Brian M D'Onofrio
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th St., Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA. kkwiggs@indiana.edu.
Source
Behav Genet. 2017 Jul; 47(4):383-393
Date
Jul-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Academic Success
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - genetics - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Labor, Induced - adverse effects
Male
Mothers
Pregnancy
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The current study examined associations between labor induction and both (1) offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in a Swedish birth cohort born 1992-2005 (n?=?1,085,008) and (2) indices of offspring low academic achievement in a sub-cohort born 1992-1997 (n?=?489,196). Associations were examined in the entire sample (i.e., related and unrelated individuals) with adjustment for measured covariates and, in order to account for unmeasured confounders shared within families, within differentially exposed cousins and siblings. We observed an association between labor induction and offspring ADHD diagnosis and low academic achievement in the population. However, these associations were fully attenuated after adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured factors that cousins and siblings share. The results suggest that observed associations between labor induction and ADHD and low academic achievement may be due to genetic and/or shared environmental factors that influence both mothers' risk of labor induction and offspring neurodevelopment.
PubMed ID
28551761 View in PubMed
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Family income in early childhood and subsequent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a quasi-experimental study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260996
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 May;55(5):428-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Henrik Larsson
Amir Sariaslan
Niklas Långström
Brian D'Onofrio
Paul Lichtenstein
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 May;55(5):428-35
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - drug therapy - economics - etiology
Family
Female
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Parents
Parity
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies have found negative associations between socioeconomic position and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear if this association is causal. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the association between family income in early childhood and subsequent ADHD depends on measured and unmeasured selection factors.
A total of 811,803 individuals born in Sweden between 1992 and 2000 were included in this nationwide population-based cohort study. Diagnosis of ADHD was assessed via the Swedish national Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Annual family income during offspring's first 5 years in life was collected prospectively from the Swedish Integrated Database for Labour Market Research and divided into quartiles by (lower) family disposable income. We predicted ADHD from family income while controlling for covariates and also comparing differently exposed cousins and siblings to control for unmeasured familial confounding.
The crude analyses suggested that children exposed to lower income levels were at increased risk for ADHD (HRQ uartile1  = 2.52; 95% CI, 2.42-2.63; HRQ uartile2  = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.45-1.58; HRQ uartile3  = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.14-1.15). This dose-dependent association decreased after adjustment for measured covariates (HRQ uartile1  = 2.09; 95% CI, 2.00-2.19; HRQ uartile2  = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.30-1.42; HRQ uartile3  = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18). Although the association was attenuated in cousin comparisons (HRQ uartile1  = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.40-1.84; HRQ uartile2  = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12-1.45; HRQ uartile3  = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.28) and sibling comparison models (HRQ uartile1  = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.75; HRQ uartile2  = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.68; HRQ uartile3  = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.45), it remained statistically significant across all levels of decreased disposable family income.
Our results indicated that low family income in early childhood was associated with increased likelihood of ADHD. The link remained even after controlling for unmeasured selection factors, highlighting family income in early childhood as a marker of causal factors for ADHD.
Notes
Comment In: J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 May;55(5):446-724708476
PubMed ID
24111650 View in PubMed
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Increased suicide risk in coeliac disease--a Swedish nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136030
Source
Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;43(8):616-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Jonas F Ludvigsson
Carl Sellgren
Bo Runeson
Niklas Långström
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden. jonasludvigsson@yahoo.com
Source
Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;43(8):616-22
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - complications - psychology
Celiac Disease - complications - immunology - pathology - psychology
Child
Child, Preschool
Depressive Disorder - complications - psychology
Female
Humans
Infant
Inflammation - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Individuals with coeliac disease have increased risk of depression and death from external causes, but conclusive studies on death from suicide are missing. We examined the risk of suicide in coeliac disease and amongst individuals where the small intestinal biopsy showed no villous atrophy.
We collected biopsy data from all 28 clinical pathology departments in Sweden for individuals diagnosed during 1969-2007 with coeliac disease (Marsh 3: villous atrophy; n=29,083 unique individuals), inflammation without villous atrophy (Marsh 1-2; n=13,263) or positive coeliac disease serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0, n=3719). Through Cox regression we calculated Hazard ratios for suicide as recorded in the Swedish Cause of Death Register.
The risk for suicide was higher in patients with coeliac disease compared to general population controls (HR=1.55; 95%CI=1.15-2.10; based on 54 completed suicides). Whilst suicide was also more common amongst individuals with inflammation (HR=1.96; 95%CI=1.39-2.77), no such increase was seen amongst individuals with a normal mucosa but positive coeliac disease serology (HR=1.06; 95%CI=0.37-3.02).
We found a moderately increased risk of suicide amongst patients with coeliac disease. This merits increased attention amongst physicians treating these patients.
Notes
Comment In: Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;43(8):585-621665558
PubMed ID
21419726 View in PubMed
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