The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase levels of breast-fed infants and their mothers were studied by following 100 healthy term mother-infant pairs with different supplementation protocols of vitamin D. A pilot study in winter revealed that six of eight breast-fed infants without vitamin D supplementation had serum 25-OHD levels below the risk limit for rickets (5 ng/ml) at the age of 8 weeks. In the main study in winter groups, it was found that the 25-OHD levels were low (5.6 +/- 3.7 ng/ml) at the age of 8 weeks in the unsupplemented breast-fed infants, whose mothers were given vitamin D supplementation of 1,000 IU/day during lactation (group I), compared with the levels of those infants receiving either 400 (18.0 +/- 8.4 ng/ml, group II) or 1,000 IU (22.8 +/- 11.2 ng/ml, group III) vitamin D (group I vs. group II or III, p less than 0.001; group II vs. group III, NS). In group I 10 of 18 infants had serum 25-OHD levels less than 5 ng/ml compared with none of the infants in groups II and III. Yet the infants with 25-OHD levels less than 5 ng/ml showed no signs of clinical or biochemical rickets at the age of 8 or 20 weeks. In summer at delivery the maternal 25-OHD levels were good, but decreased thereafter. Also in summer groups, the infantile 25-OHD concentrations decreased; however, because the levels at delivery were high, they stayed in the normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS, OMIM 251260) is a rare hereditary disease, characterized by immune deficiency, microcephaly, and an extremely high incidence of lymphoid tissue malignancies. The gene mutated in NBS, NBS1, was recently cloned from its location on chromosome 8q21. The encoded protein, nibrin (p95), together with hMre11 and hRad50, is involved in the double-strand DNA break repair system. We screened two Russian cohorts for the 657del5 NBS1 mutation and found no carriers in 548 controls and two carriers in 68 patients with lymphoid malignancies: one with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and one with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Several relatives of the second patient, who were carriers of the same mutation, had cancer (ALL, breast cancer, GI cancers). These preliminary data suggest that NBS1 mutation carriers can be predisposed to malignant disorders.
The presently available Canadian data, based on direct measurements of blood pressure (BP) from the Canadian Heart Health Surveys, are more than 15 years old. In view of major changes in the demographics and health status of the Ontario population, there is an urgent need to update this information. On the initiative of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, jointly with Statistics Canada, designed and implemented a population-based cross-sectional survey of hypertension in the Province of Ontario: the 2006 Ontario Survey on the Prevalence and Control of Hypertension (ON-BP).
To establish the prevalence of hypertension in the Ontario adult population between the ages of 20 and 79 years; to assess the awareness, current status and management of hypertension; and to gather respondent information about sex, age, physical measurements, personal health practices, socioeconomic measures, ethnicity and comorbidities.
The present paper describes the background history and the successive steps undertaken during the implementation of this project.
The authors' experiences from the ON-BP indicate that close co-operation between research scientists, statisticians, governmental and nongovernmental organizations -- in the present case, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario -- is essential to conduct a successful, large-scale survey of BP distribution.
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Cites: JAMA. 2003 May 14;289(18):2363-912746359
Cites: JAMA. 2003 Jul 9;290(2):199-20612851274
Cites: Am J Hypertens. 2004 Apr;17(4):354-6015062890
To evaluate the nutritional and clinical consequences of changing from a centralized food delivery system to decentralized bulk food portioning; a system in which meal portioning occurs on residents' floors of a nursing home.
A pilot study with a pre-post design
The study took place on one floor of a home for elderly persons with dementia. Of the 34 residents, 22 (1 man) participated in this study. Average age was 82 years (range = 55 to 94 years). Nutritional status was verified before introduction of the bulk food portioning system by 3 nonconsecutive days of observed food intakes, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper-arm circumference), and biochemical parameters (albumin, lymphocytes, glucose, sodium, potassium, transferrin, vitamin B-12, folate, hemoglobin). Trained dietitians collected the dietary and anthropometric data and validated the food intake estimates and anthropometric measurements. Data were also collected 10 weeks after implementation of the new food distribution system.
Paired t tests adjusted by a Bonferroni correction assessed differences between values measured before and after introduction of the new food distribution system.
Average food consumption increased substantially and significantly after introduction of the bulk food portioning system. Mean energy intakes rose from 1,555 to 1,924 kcal/day and most other nutrients also increased, many significantly, but there were no changes in anthropometric values or biochemical parameters, except for albumin level which decreased to the lower normal limit.
Portioning of food in the residents' dining room simulates a homelike atmosphere thereby encouraging increased food consumption. With well-trained and enthusiastic staff, this system could contribute to improved nutritional status in the very elderly, even those who have dementia. Dietitians have a key role to play in overseeing residents' nutritional needs and in training, supervising, and motivating foodservice personnel.
The potential preventability of serious helicobacter-associated diseases - especially gastric cancer - has evoked interest in eradicating this pathogen from the population. We assessed the efficacy of the pioneering screen and treat intervention project in Vammala by studying helicobacter seroprevalence in pregnant women representing the normal population. Consecutive maternity clinic samples from native Finnish females at five different localities in 1995 (n=701) and 2000 (n=772) were investigated for class IgG H. pylori antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (Pyloriset EIA-G III, Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland). In Vammala the change in helicobacter seroprevalence was -13%-units (between 1995 and 2000; p=0.0125, chi-square test) in > or =29-year-old females, +1.6%-units (difference statistically non-significant) in
This study piloted a knowledge translation (KT) intervention promoting evidence-based home care through social interaction. A total of 33 providers organized into 5 heterogeneous, geographically defined action groups participated in 5 researcher-facilitated meetings based on the participatory action model. The KT evidence reflects an empowering partnership approach to service delivery. Exploratory investigation included quantitative pre-post measurement of outcomes and qualitative description of data, presented herein. The critical reflections of the groups reveal macro-, meso-, and micro-level barriers to and facilitators of KT as well as recommendations for achieving KT. Insights gleaned from the findings have informed the evolution of the KT intervention to engage all 3 levels in addressing barriers and facilitators, with a conscious effort to transcend "push" and "pull" tendencies and enact transformative leadership. The findings suggest the merit of a more prolonged longitudinal investigation with expanded participation.
CanDRIVE(1): a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Aging funded New Emerging Team, Elisabeth-Bruyère Research Institute, 43 Bruyère Street, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 5C8. email@example.com
Older drivers have one of the highest motor vehicle crash (MVC) rates per kilometer driven, largely due to the functional effects of the accumulation, and progression of age-associated medical conditions that eventually impact on fitness-to-drive. Consequently, physicians in many jurisdictions are legally mandated to report to licensing authorities patients who are judged to be medically at risk for MVCs. Unfortunately, physicians lack evidence-based tools to assess the fitness-to-drive of their older patients. This paper reports on a pilot study that examines the acceptability and association with MVC of components of a comprehensive clinical assessment battery.
To evaluate the acceptability to participants of components of a comprehensive assessment battery, and to explore potential predictors of MVC that can be employed in front-line clinical settings.
Case-control study of 10 older drivers presenting to a tertiary care hospital emergency department after involvement in an MVC and 20 age-matched controls.
The measures tested were generally found to be acceptable to participants. Positive associations (p
Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten-session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6 months compared to baseline: a 49% reduction in health anxiety (Whiteley-7 Index), a 47% decrease in emotional distress (SCL-8), and a 40% decrease in somatic symptoms (SCL-90R Somatization Subscale). The patients' emotional representations and perception of the consequences of their illness (IPQ) improved significantly, and 87% of the patients were very or extremely satisfied with the treatment.
The main purpose of this pilot study was instrument development, focused on personal adjustment following ostomy surgery. Two instruments were used: a translated and revised version of the Acceptance of Disability Scale, Modified (ADM), and Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence (SOC) questionnaire. A sample of 26 patients enrolled consecutively at the Ostomy Care Centre at a Swedish hospital were included in the study. A Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.95 was obtained for the ADM Scale, Swedish version, which is consistent with the results of similar studies. A significant difference between the ADM scores and type of ostomy surgery indicated that persons with a continent ostomy had a greater acceptance of ostomy surgery than had subjects with conventional ostomy surgery. A close correlation between ADM and SOC was obtained, indicating that persons who accept ostomy surgery will also have a good sense of coherence. The result of this pilot study indicates that further research using both measures may be useful in order to identify which factors are of relevance for nursing practice.