This article presents a programme for cardiovascular health for 9 to 12 years old children, called "Healthy Heart" Saint-Louis du Parc and carried out in low socioeconomic and multiethnic part of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. These five years programme targets were more both spheres: school and community (leisure centre, ethnocultural centre, groceries and other places). We develop the objectives, the conceptual models underlying to the programme, the perspective of work, the infrastructure of the programme: its staff and financing, the partnerships and the structure organising. Then we present the various interventions carried out along the period and so a description of many evaluations. At last, we discuss about the programme continuation.
This study investigated factors related to the perceived sustainability of 189 heart health promotion interventions initiated by a public health department or research initiative and implemented in a variety of organizations across Canada.
Data were collected in a telephone survey of key informants from schools, restaurants, grocery stores, health care facilities, and sports facilities that had implemented a heart health promotion intervention (risk factor screening, courses for smoking cessation, healthy eating or physical activity, support groups to promote healthy lifestyles, environmental modification, dissemination of information) in the past 8 years.
Overall, 43.6% of 189 interventions were perceived to be very permanent, 34.8% were somewhat permanent, and 21.5% were not permanent. Independent correlates of perceived sustainability included intervention used no paid staff (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) = 3.7 (1.8, 7.5)), intervention was modified during implementation (OR (95% Cl) = 2.7 (1.4, 5.0)), there was a good fit between the local provider and the intervention (OR (95% Cl) = 2.4 (1.2, 5.0)), and there was the presence of a program champion (OR (95% Cl) = 2.3 (1.2, 4.4)).
Consideration of these factors by health promotion program planners could increase the potential for sustainability of health promotion interventions implemented in the community.
A contest to encourage smokers to quit and to remain nonsmokers for at least six weeks was held in a low income neighbourhood in Montreal. The contest was one of many activities for a multifactorial community-based heart health promotion program. The objective of this article is to describe the intervention and its evaluation and to reflect on its relative successes. Thirty-one persons registered for the contest, seven stopped smoking during the six-week contest, and six persons remained abstinent two weeks after the end of it. Concrete recommendations regarding the contest and implementation of a smoking cessation program are discussed.
A multiple case study design is used to explain the level of implementation of a "Heart Health" curriculum by grade four teachers of eight schools in a Montreal multiethnic and underprivileged district. An interview and logbook examine the following variables: 1) personal characteristics of the teachers; 2) organizational characteristics of the schools; 3) characteristics of the program; 4) collaboration between the health and educational sectors; and 5) curriculum level of use and fidelity of implementation. The results show in particular that the personal characteristics of the teachers and the characteristics of the program explain the level of implementation of the Heart Health curriculum.
Direction de la santé publique, Régie régionale de la santé et des services sociaux de Montréal-Centre, Division of Preventive Medicine, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que. firstname.lastname@example.org
In 1997 the Direction de la santé publique de Montréal-Centre initiated "Physicians Taking Action Against Smoking," a 5-year intervention program to improve the smoking cessation counselling practices of general practitioners (GPs) in Montreal. Program development was guided by the precede-proceed model. This model advocates identifying factors influencing the outcome, in this case counselling practices. These factors are then used to determine the program objectives, to develop and tailor program activities and to design the evaluation. Program activities during the first 3 years included cessation counselling workshops and conferences for GPs, publication of articles in professional interest journals, publication of clinical guidelines for smoking cessation counselling and dissemination of educational material for both GPs and smokers. The program also supported activities encouraging smokers to ask their GPs to help them stop smoking. Results from 2 cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1998 and 2000, of random samples of approximately 300 GPs suggest some improvements over time in several counselling practices, including offering counselling to more patients and discussing setting a quit date. More improvements were observed among female than male GPs in both psychosocial factors related to counselling and specific counselling practices. For example, improvements were noted among female GPs in self-perceived ability to provide effective counselling and in the belief that it is important to schedule specific appointments to help patients quit; in addition, the perceived importance of several barriers to counselling decreased among female GPs. A greater proportion of the female respondents to the 2000 survey offered written educational material than was the case in 1998, and a greater proportion of the male GPs devoted more time to counselling in 2000 than in 1998; however, among male GPs the proportion who discussed the pros and cons of smoking with patients in the pre-contemplation stage declined between 1998 and 2000, as did the proportion who referred patients in the preparation stage to community resources. Our experience suggests that an integrated, theory-based program to improve physicians' counselling practices could be a key component of a comprehensive strategy to reduce tobacco use.
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Although some school based smoking prevention programmes have shown positive impacts, others have had only short term effects, no effects, and in some cases reverse effects. The St-Louis du Parc Heart Health Project was a five year heart health promotion programme targeting children in eight elementary schools aged 9-12 years in disadvantaged multiethnic neighbourhoods in Montreal. In a controlled, longitudinal evaluation, the programme produced reverse effects on smoking--children exposed to the programme were more likely to initiate and to continue smoking than control children. This article explores hypotheses to explain the reverse effects.
Following work by an in-house committee, a consensus workshop with international experts was conducted to develop hypotheses to explain the reverse effects. This was complemented by an analysis of the programme's concordance with the standard guidelines on the school based prevention of tobacco use, and discussions with experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The programme respected most standard guidelines for smoking prevention programmes with respect to content and mode of delivery. Hypotheses to explain the reverse effects include: an unfavourable environment characterised by strong pro-smoking models and resistance to environmental interventions; heightened sensitivity to smoking among children most exposed to the programme; defence mechanisms among children stimulated by cognitive dissonance or anxiety; unanticipated effects associated with the health educator who delivered the programme; inadequate attention in programme development to the diverse cultural origins of the population targeted; and intervention content inappropriately targeted to children's stages of cognitive development.
Elementary school based interventions should aim to develop a clear and coherent social norm about the non-use of tobacco, as a precursor to or in close conjunction with having children as their primary target. Programme design should take key student characteristics into consideration and ensure that the modes of communication are adapted to the targeted group's characteristics. Neighbourhood level interventions should be orchestrated to complement regional, provincial, and national programmes.
The objectives were to evaluate the impact of "Yes, I Quit" (a smoking cessation course tailored for women in a low income, low education community), and to identify baseline predictors of short and longer-term self-reported cessation. The impact was evaluated in a before-after study design with no comparison group. Baseline data were collected in self-administered questionnaires at the beginning of the first session of the course. Follow-up data were collected in telephone interviews at one, three and six months after the designated Quit Day. Self-reported quit rates among 122 participants were 31.1%, 24.7% and 22.3% at one, three and six months. Non-quitters reduced their consumption by 10.3, 8.3, and 7.1 cigarettes per day at one, three and six months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being in excellent/good health was significantly associated with cessation at one month (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4). Being married (OR = 13.0) and no other smokers in the household (OR = 3.6) were associated with three-month cessation. Only being married was associated with six-month cessation (OR = 6.8). "Yes, I Quit" produced quit rates among low income, low education participants comparable to those reported for cessation programs directed at the general population of smokers. Good health is associated with early cessation, while support from a spouse is important to maintaining a non-smoking status among quitters.