Homelessness is a social condition increasing in frequency and severity across Canada. Interventions to end and prevent homelessness include effective case management in addition to an affordable housing provision. Little standardization exists for service providers to guide their decision making in developing and maintaining effective case management programs. The purpose of this 2-part article is to articulate dimensions of promising practice for case managers working in a "Housing First" context. Part 1 discusses research processes and findings and part-2 articulates the 6 Dimensions of Quality.
Practice settings include community-based organizations that employ and support case managers whose primary role is moving people from homelessness into permanent housing.
Six dimensions of promising practice are critically important to reducing barriers, improving sector collaboration, and ensuring case managers have appropriate and effective training and support. Dimensions of promising practice are: (1) collaboration and cooperation-a true team approach; (2) right matching of services-person-centered; (3) contextual case management-culture and flexibility; (4) the right kind of engagement-relationships and advocacy; (5) coordinated and well managed system-ethics and communication; and (6) evaluation for success-support and training.
Effective, coordinated case management, in addition to permanent affordable housing has the potential to reduce a person or family's homelessness permanently. Organizations and professionals working in this context have the opportunity to improve processes, reduce burnout, collaborate and standardize, and most importantly, efficiently and permanently end someone's homelessness with the help of dimensions of quality for case management.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury in the state. Collaborative efforts have contributed to reducing crash rates and mortality in Alaska's rapidly expanding helicopter logging industry and have played an important supportive role in the substantial progress made in reducing the mortality rate in Alaska's commercial fishing industry (historically Alaska's and America's most dangerous industry). Alaska experienced a 46% overall decline in work-related acute traumatic injury deaths from 1991 to 1998, a 64% decline in commercial fishing deaths, and a very sharp decline in helicopter logging-related deaths. Extending this regional approach to other parts of the country and applying these strategies to the entire spectrum of occupational injury and disease hazards could have a broad effect on reducing occupational injuries.
This paper describes the redesign of the triage process in an Emergency Department with the purpose of improving the patient flow and thus increasing patient satisfaction through the reduction of the overall length of stay. The process, Advance Triage, allows the triage nurse to initiate diagnostic protocols for frequently occurring medical problems based on physician-approved algorithms. With staff and physician involvement and medical specialist approval, nine Advance Triage algorithms were developed-abdominal pain, eye trauma, chest pain, gynaecological symptoms, substance abuse, orthopaedic trauma, minor trauma, paediatric fever and paediatric emergent. A comprehensive educational program was provided to the triage nurses and Advance Triage was initiated. A process was established at one year to evaluate the effectiveness of the Advance Triage System. The average length of stay was found to be 46 min less for all patients who were advance triaged with the greatest time-saving of 76 min for patients in the 'Urgent' category. The most significant saving was realized in the patient's length of stay (LOS) after the Emergency Physician assessed them because diagnostic results, available during the initial patient assessment, allowed treatment decisions to be made at that time. Advance Triage utilizes patient waiting time efficiently and increases the nurses' and physicians' job satisfaction.
Initial efforts to increase the availability of training positions, standardise training, and obtain national recognition for family physicians who wished to practise anaesthesia had stalled.
To describe the work undertaken to create and sustain family medicine anaesthesiology capacity in Canada.
In our review, we examined the critical aspects of successful intersectoral work, namely, involvement by key stakeholders; the development of decision-making mechanisms; clearly defined objectives, roles and responsibilities; official support and legitimisation from participating organisations and adequate resources for partnership building.
Canadian rural family medicine anaesthesiology practice.
A small steering committee obtained funding for a national meeting of stakeholders and subsequent committee work over an 18-month period. The national meeting brought together the necessary stakeholders to review and discuss the issues and agree on a group-determined agenda, determine a work plan, identify priority areas and allow the College of Family Physicians of Canada to be the lead organisation in moving the work ahead. Within 18 months, the boards of the key organisations had accepted a common set of standards for training and a national curriculum. Work remains in the longer term to identify sustainable funding for training of family physician as well as the provision of continuing medical education for those trained.
Appropriate attention to the key components of successful intersectoral work may enable previously stalled and complex work to move ahead despite opposition.
In August 1995, the Ontario Ministry of Health (MOH) issued a request for proposal (RFP) for the establishment of new and expanded dialysis services. London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) was successful in expanding its integrated dialysis delivery network with satellites in Stratford, Woodstock and Owen Sound. This achievement required collaboration of LHSC and host hospital staff to meet the challenging RFP requirements. With final approval received in January 1997, efforts were required to establish an operational model supporting self-care and full-care patients, to train satellite staff and patients, and to manage the resulting clinical impact. A balanced scorecard (Kaplan & Norton, 1992) evaluation model was developed. Initial outcome data indicate that full-care patients in satellites require more fallback support to London units, experience more hypotensive episodes during dialysis and, in some cases, demonstrate lower levels of dialysis adequacy and nutritional status when compared to satellite self-care patients. Findings from these data will assist in revising patient inclusion criteria and processes to optimize community-based dialysis.
To explore the feasibility of utilizing Cool Kids, a mainstream resource based on cognitive behavioural principles, to address acute and chronic anxiety with Aboriginal children in a remote setting.
Evidence from the literature suggests some symptomatic differences and learning challenges which demand consideration prior to implementation in this population. In particular, cultural sensitivities in many areas need to be respected, as does the sense of interconnectedness in terms of self and thinking.
Given sufficient knowledge, appropriate cultural protocol, and concentration on engagement it should be possible to use an adapted Cool Kids program to decrease the high levels of anxiety in a remote Indigenous population. Being aware of the differences in western and Indigenous thinking and learning will help direct adaptation.
Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) is an expensive and sometimes scarce blood product that carries some risk. It may often be used inappropriately. We evaluated the appropriateness of IVIG use before and after the introduction of an utilization control program to reduce inappropriate use.
We used the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to measure the appropriateness of IVIG use in the province of British Columbia (BC) in 2001 and 2003, before and after the introduction of a utilization control program designed to reduce inappropriate use. For comparison, we measured the appropriateness of use during the same periods in the province of Alberta, which had no control program.
Of 2256 instances of IVIG use, 54.1% were deemed to be appropriate, 17.4% were of uncertain benefit, and 28.5% were deemed inappropriate. The frequency of inappropriate use in BC after the introduction of the utilization control program did not differ significantly from the frequency before the program or the frequency in Alberta.
Almost half of IVIG use in BC and Alberta was judged to be inappropriate or of uncertain benefit, and the frequency of inappropriate use did not decrease after implementation of a utilization control program in BC. More effective utilization controls are necessary to prevent wasted resources and unnecessary risk to patients.
Cites: Mayo Clin Proc. 2000 Jan;75(1):83-510630762
The analysis of the loss of health due to road accidents provides the basis for important practical conclusions concerning groups and periods of the maximum risk and measures to reduce road traumatism. As a rule, these programs are based on the assessments made by the staff of the State Inspection of Road Traffic Safety. However their effectiveness is determined not by specialists but rather by participants of the road traffic. The opinion of persons injured acquires special significance.