Cancer control service cannot be managed without having a clear idea of trends and changes in the incidence of malignant neoplasms and associated death rates. These studies become a basis for setting up oncological facilities for both children and adults, having an adequate infrastructure (final fund, the profile of units, a list of staff, the volume of work). Pediatric oncological rooms to collect statistics, to make a primary diagnosis, a follow-up, and outpatient chemotherapy in children with malignant neoplasms, and to do methological work with pediatric and non-oncological specialized children's out- and inpatient units have been opened in most administrative, regional, territorial, and republican centers. Notification is much more complete where specialized pediatric oncological rooms (Moscow) register such children. Unfortunately, such rooms are still few and so such ill children are registered by regional and city oncological dispensaries (and, as shown, 50% of the patients are outside registration).