BACKGROUND: The number of CT examinations performed in Denmark increased from 14,500 examinations in 1979 to 301,617 in 2005. This implies increased radiation dose to the population. On this background, an analysis of the practice for CT examinations including potential limitations of radiation exposure and the associated risk is needed. PURPOSES: To analyse 1) the current use of CT in a university department compared to 1996, 2) the radiation dose and risk associated with the examinations and 3) the use of CT in Denmark since 1979. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The administrative data of CT examinations performed in the Department of Radiology, Aarhus Sygehus, during 2005 and 1996, respectively, were obtained. Additionally national CT data were obtained from the database at the National Board of Health. RESULTS: In 1996 1,840 patients obtained 5,538 CT examinations at Aarhus Sygehus. Their mean age was 46.7 years (0-88). The most frequent referring speciality was oncology followed by abdominal surgery and orthopaedic surgery. In 2005 3,769 patients obtained 11,216 CT examinations. They were generally older with a mean age of 56.9 years (0-97). The most frequent referring speciality was oncology followed by chest medicine and abdominal surgery. In 2005 the total effective dose was 71,043 mSv (mean 18.9 mSv/per patient). According to the BEIR VII model this radiation level corresponded to a risk for inducing a cancer in 7 patients, being fatal in half of them. The national data showed a gradual increase of the number of CT examinations from 1979 to 2005, most pronounced after year 2000 coinciding with the introduction of multi-slice CT (MSCT). CONCLUSION: The number of CT examinations at Aarhus Sygehus doubled during a 9 year period. The increase occured especially in middle and high age groups.
Over the past decade, clinical studies and clinical practice guidelines have suggested the use of higher small solute clearance targets for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study asks whether these recommendations have translated into changes in clinical prescription of PD.
Data were collected annually from 1996 to 1999 on all prevalent dialysis patients in 24 Canadian centers, accounting for approximately 40% of the Canadian chronic dialysis population. Approximately a third of these patients were on PD. Full details of each patient's prescription were recorded, with particular attention to dwell volumes and frequency of exchanges for continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and to total treatment volumes and day dwells for automated PD (APD). The most recent Kt/V and creatinine clearance values available were recorded for each patient and the overall results for each year were compared to present treatment recommendations.
24 university- and community-based hospitals.
From 1996 to 1999, the use of APD, relative to CAPD, grew from 14% to 28% of all PD patients. Among CAPD patients, the proportion using dwell volumes greater than 2 L rose from 14% to 32%, and the proportion doing more than 4 dwells per day rose from 16% to 28%. The mean daily volume of prescribed fluid for CAPD patients increased from 8.3 to 9.1 L. As a result, the proportion of patients achieving a weekly Kt/V above 2.0 rose from 54% to 72%, and those receiving a Kt/V less than 1.7 fell from 22% to 10%. For creatinine clearance, those exceeding 60 L per week rose from 63% to 73%. For APD, the mean treatment volume rose from 11.8 L in 1996 to plateau at about 13.4 L in 1998 and 1999. However, the proportion of patients receiving more than 1 day dwell grew from 31% in 1998 to 40% in 1999, and the proportion that were "day dry" fell from 25% to 17%. For APD, the proportion of patients with a Kt/V above 2.0 rose from 67% to 77%, and with a creatinine clearance above 60 L, from 62% to 70%. The proportion with no recent clearance value recorded fell during the course of the study, from 45% to 27%.
There was a marked change in PD prescription practices in Canada during the second half of the 1990s. This occurred in response to clinical studies and publication of guidelines. There is room for further improvement, especially with respect to the proportion of patients that did not have regular clearance measurements made.
To identify trends in family practice in London, Ont, between 1974 and 1994.
Interview survey of all London family physicians in 1974. Questionnaire surveys in 1984 and 1994.
City of London, Ont.
One hundred twenty-eight family physicians and general practitioners practising in London in 1974, 180 in 1984, and 237 in 1994.
The percentage of female practitioners, practitioners with no in-hospital patients, and practitioners making no home visits in an average week increased significantly. The percentage of solo practitioners and family physicians practising obstetrics decreased significantly. Changes were found in the numbers of patients seen, in weekend coverage, in evening, and Wednesday afternoon office hours, and in level of satisfaction with practice.
Fewer physicians cared for in-hospital patients, made home visits, practised solo, and delivered babies in 1994 than in 1974. Substantially more women were practising family medicine in 1994 than in 1974. The trend away from in-hospital care, with no corresponding increase in home care, raises questions about how urban family physicians can maintain certain clinical skills.
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Results of an international survey on dental hygiene are reported. The survey was conducted in 1988 through the International Dental Hygienists' Federation as part of a project to establish and maintain an international database on the profession. Information was collected by mail from national dental hygienist associations, using a 40-item questionnaire developed for the purpose; preliminary tabulations were validated by the associations. Information is presented for 13 countries-Australia, Canada, Denmark, Italy, Japan, Korea, The Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and the United Kingdom. Characteristics include historical development, numbers and distribution, education, regulation, scope of practice, employment settings and conditions, professional organisation, and perceived oral health and professional issues. The profiles and issues are examined in the light of broader socio-economic, demographic, epidemiological, technological and policy-related trends and changes. Implications for future health and organisational planning are noted.
Recent reformulations of health promotion focus on empowerment as both a means and an end in health promotion practice. Both concepts, however, are rarely examined for their assumptions about social change processes or the potential of community groups, professionals, and institutions to create healthier living situations. This article attends to some of these assumptions, expressing ideas generated during 6 years of professional training workshops with over 2,500 community health practitioners in Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The article first argues that health promotion is not a social movement but a professional and bureaucratic response to the new knowledge challenges of social movements. As such, it has both empowering and disempowering aspects. The article analyzes empowerment as a dialectical relation in which power is simultaneously given and taken, and illustrates this in the context of health promotion programs. A model of an empowering professional (institutional) health promotion practice is presented, in which linkages among personal services, small group supports, community organizing, coalition advocacy, and political action are made explicit. Practice examples are provided to illustrate each level of the empowering relation, and the article concludes with a brief discussion of the model's educational and organizational utility.