Agricultural activity on Prince Edward Island poses a potential hazard to groundwater, which is the sole source of drinking water on the island. This study investigates the potential impact of groundwater nitrate exposure on prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction on Prince Edward Island. A total of 210 intrauterine growth restriction cases, 336 premature births, and 4098 controls were abstracted from a database of all Island births. An ecological measure of groundwater nitrate level was used to gauge potential exposure to agriculturally contaminated drinking water. The higher nitrate exposure categories were positively associated with intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity, and significant dose-response trends were seen, even after adjustment for several important covariates. Nevertheless, these risks must be interpreted cautiously because of the ecological nature of this exposure metric. An investigation using nitrate levels for individual study subjects is needed to confirm this association.
Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 Jul 28;60(6):423-3910933758
Cites: J Hum Genet. 2007;52(5):423-3517427032
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Mar;109 Suppl 1:35-4711250804
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Dec;11(12):1560-512496044
Cites: Mutat Res. 2003 Sep;544(1):9-4112888106
Cites: Int J Cancer. 2003 Nov 20;107(4):652-714520706
Cites: Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Dec;82(3):191-714703066
Cites: Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Feb;2(2):159-637684637
Cites: Cancer Res. 1995 Aug 15;55(16):3483-57627950
Cites: Cancer Res. 1998 Jan 1;58(1):65-709426059
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1998 May 1;147(9):826-339583712
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Jan;8(1):41-49950238
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Jan 15;161(2):121-3515632262
Cites: Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7(1):R12-815642161
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2005 May 15;161(10):901-1515870154
Cites: Cancer. 2005 Jun 1;103(11):2228-3515856430
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2008 Mar;11(3-4):276-30018368557
Cites: Toxicol Lett. 2009 Oct 28;190(2):150-519595748
Cites: Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jul;122(2):459-6920035380
Cites: Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jul;122(2):503-720052535
Cites: Breast J. 2011 Jan-Feb;17(1):24-3121129090
Cites: Toxicol Lett. 2005 Oct 15;159(1):83-815979257
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31 Suppl 1:55-61; discussion 5-716190150
Cites: Pest Manag Sci. 2006 Feb;62(2):126-3616358323
Cites: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Mar 1;211(2):87-9616005924
Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Mar;15(3):551-816537715
Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes controlling the formation and disposition of estrogens and their metabolites have been shown to influence breast cancer risk. Environmental and lifestyle factors may interact with estrogen metabolism polymorphisms to influence breast cancer risk. We studied the role of lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism in women from Prince Edward Island (PEI), a small province of 135,000 people on the east coast of Canada. Women (207 cases; 621 controls) were matched on age, menopausal status, and family history of breast cancer. The predominant lifestyle risk factors previously reported to influence breast cancer risk such as body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking had similar influences in the PEI population. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP17, GSTM1, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were not associated with a general increase in breast cancer risk. However, the CYP17 A2/A2 genotype was only observed in women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer and not in ER negative breast cancer. The increased risk associated with elevated BMI was only observed in women homozygous for the CYP17 and COMT reference alleles. Similarly, the increased risk associated with extended use of oral contraceptives (=?15years), was only observed in women homozygous for the reference alleles of CYP17 and COMT. The GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer risk. These results suggest the polymorphic genes that control estrogen formation and disposition interact significantly with other risk factors to influence breast cancer risk.
There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement included parasite control, dental and hoof care, and tail docking. The mean fecal egg count was 428 eggs per gram; 76% of owners never removed manure from the pasture. Sixty-two percent of horses had never had a veterinary dental examination. Many horses had hoof defects (excessively long hooves, 26.8%; hoof wall breaks, 32.0%; and white line disease, 8.5%). Many (54.9%) draft horses had docked tails. These results suggest owners might benefit their horses by receiving education in aspects of equine care.
Cites: J Anim Sci. 1977 Jul;45(1):87-9318431
Cites: Equine Vet J. 1983 Oct;15(4):371-26641685
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1985 Dec;103(6 ( Pt 2)):1052-624062125
Cites: Lancet. 1986 Feb 8;1(8476):307-102868172
Cites: Biometrics. 1989 Mar;45(1):255-682720055
Cites: J Parasitol. 1990 Aug;76(4):487-942380857
Cites: Stat Med. 1992 Apr;11(6):751-601594814
Cites: Res Vet Sci. 1993 Sep;55(2):236-458235093
Cites: Vet Rec. 1994 Apr 30;134(18):463-78059511
Cites: Vet Rec. 1995 Jul 8;137(2):36-78525580
Cites: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jun 15;218(12):1957-6011417741
Cites: J Dairy Sci. 2001 Jan;84(1):84-711210053
Cites: Vet Parasitol. 2000 Sep 10;92(1):51-6210936545
Cites: Aust Vet J. 1999 Oct;77(10):678-910590799
Cites: Equine Vet J Suppl. 1998 Nov;(27):14-810484997
Cites: Vet Rec. 1999 Sep 11;145(11):299-30410515615
Cites: Equine Vet J. 1997 Jan;29(1):67-99031868
Cites: Vet Parasitol. 1999 Aug 31;85(2-3):113-21; discussion 121-2, 215-2510485358
Cites: Equine Vet J. 1999 Jan;31(1):68-729952332
Cites: Vet Rec. 2001 Jun 30;148(26):799-80211467606
There has been a proliferation of repeat prenatal ultrasound examinations per pregnancy in many developed countries over the past 20 years, yet few studies have examined the main determinants of the utilization of prenatal ultrasonography.
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the type of provider, place of residence and a wide range of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the frequency of prenatal ultrasounds in Canada, while controlling for maternal risk profiles.
The study utilized the data set of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES) conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006. Using an appropriate count data regression model, the study assessed the influence of a wide range of socioeconomic, demographic, maternal risk factors and types of provider on the number of prenatal ultrasounds. The regression model was further extended by interacting providers with provinces to assess the differential influence of types of provider on the number of ultrasounds both across and within provinces.
The results suggested that, in addition to maternal risk factors, the number of ultrasounds was also influenced by the type of healthcare provider and geographic regions. Obstetricians/gynaecologists were likely to recommend more ultrasounds than family physicians, midwives and nurse practitioners. Similarly, birthing women who received their care in Ontario were likely to have more ultrasounds than women who received their prenatal care in other provinces/territories. Additional analysis involving interactions between providers and provinces suggested that the inter-provincial variations were particularly more pronounced for family physicians/general practitioners than for obstetricians/gynaecologists. Similarly, the results for intra-provincial variations suggested that compared with obstetricians/gynaecologists, family physicians/GPs ordered fewer ultrasound examinations in Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Alberta and Newfoundland.
After controlling for a number of socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as maternal risk factors, it was found that the type of provider and the province of prenatal care were statistically significant determinants of the frequency of use of ultrasounds. Additional analysis involving interactions between providers and provinces indicated wide intra- and inter-provincial variations in the use of prenatal ultrasounds. New policy measures are needed at the provincial and federal government levels to achieve more appropriate use of prenatal ultrasonography.
The aim of this study was to estimate population based incidence rates for infantile spasms (IS) and to study our clinical impression that the incidence of IS has recently decreased in the Canadian Provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
Birth cohorts from 1978 to 1998, identified through the hospital health records, EEG records and physician computerized databases, were followed for two years for the development of IS. Disease incidence rates were calculated using denominators derived from Statistics Canada's reported annual live birth rates.
The inclusion criteria for IS were fulfilled by 75 patients. The overall incidence of IS was 30.7/100,000 live births (95% Cl 24.3, 38.8). Etiologic classification was symptomatic for 51 cases (68%), cryptogenic for 18 (24%), and idiopathic in six children (8%). Although there were more males (N=44) than females (N=31), the incidence rates were similar. There was a marked variability in annual and five-year incidence rates.
Although the clinical characteristics of our patients were similar to other reported IS populations, the instability in IS incidence rates indicates a need for caution in interpreting smaller IS epidemiologic studies.
Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.