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31 records – page 1 of 4.

Agricultural contamination of groundwater as a possible risk factor for growth restriction or prematurity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194907
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Apr;43(4):377-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
J. Bukowski
G. Somers
J. Bryanton
Author Affiliation
Clinical Research Centre, University of Prince Edward Island.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Apr;43(4):377-83
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Case-Control Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Fetal Growth Retardation - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Male
Nitrates - adverse effects - analysis
Obstetric Labor, Premature - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Risk factors
Topography, Medical
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Agricultural activity on Prince Edward Island poses a potential hazard to groundwater, which is the sole source of drinking water on the island. This study investigates the potential impact of groundwater nitrate exposure on prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction on Prince Edward Island. A total of 210 intrauterine growth restriction cases, 336 premature births, and 4098 controls were abstracted from a database of all Island births. An ecological measure of groundwater nitrate level was used to gauge potential exposure to agriculturally contaminated drinking water. The higher nitrate exposure categories were positively associated with intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity, and significant dose-response trends were seen, even after adjustment for several important covariates. Nevertheless, these risks must be interpreted cautiously because of the ecological nature of this exposure metric. An investigation using nitrate levels for individual study subjects is needed to confirm this association.
PubMed ID
11322099 View in PubMed
Less detail

AIDS/HIV survey--Prince Edward Island.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221249
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1993 Apr 15;19(7):49-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-1993
Author
L. Sweet
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Social Services, Charlottetown, Prince Edward, Island.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 1993 Apr 15;19(7):49-50
Date
Apr-15-1993
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology
HIV Seropositivity - epidemiology
HIV Seroprevalence
Health Surveys
Humans
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
PubMed ID
8495222 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer risk, fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A gene-environment interactions in a province-wide case control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122918
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 May;9(5):1846-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Jillian Ashley-Martin
John VanLeeuwen
Alastair Cribb
Pantelis Andreou
Judith Read Guernsey
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5790 University Ave., Halifax, NS B3H1V7, Canada. jillian.ashley-martin@dal.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 May;9(5):1846-58
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fungicides, Industrial
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22754477 View in PubMed
Less detail

CYP17, catechol-o-methyltransferase, and glutathione transferase M1 genetic polymorphisms, lifestyle factors, and breast cancer risk in women on Prince Edward Island.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138879
Source
Breast J. 2011 Jan-Feb;17(1):24-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
Alastair E Cribb
Marion Joy Knight
Judy Guernsey
Dagny Dryer
Kimberly Hender
Allam Shawwa
Marvin Tesch
Tarek M Saleh
Author Affiliation
Atlantic Centre for Comparative Biomedical Research, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada. acribb@ucalgary.ca
Source
Breast J. 2011 Jan-Feb;17(1):24-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Breast Neoplasms - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Catechol O-Methyltransferase - genetics
Contraceptives, Oral
Female
Gene Deletion
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Glutathione Transferase - genetics
Homozygote
Humans
Life Style
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Receptors, Estrogen
Risk assessment
Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase - genetics
Abstract
Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes controlling the formation and disposition of estrogens and their metabolites have been shown to influence breast cancer risk. Environmental and lifestyle factors may interact with estrogen metabolism polymorphisms to influence breast cancer risk. We studied the role of lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolism in women from Prince Edward Island (PEI), a small province of 135,000 people on the east coast of Canada. Women (207 cases; 621 controls) were matched on age, menopausal status, and family history of breast cancer. The predominant lifestyle risk factors previously reported to influence breast cancer risk such as body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking had similar influences in the PEI population. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP17, GSTM1, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were not associated with a general increase in breast cancer risk. However, the CYP17 A2/A2 genotype was only observed in women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer and not in ER negative breast cancer. The increased risk associated with elevated BMI was only observed in women homozygous for the CYP17 and COMT reference alleles. Similarly, the increased risk associated with extended use of oral contraceptives (=?15years), was only observed in women homozygous for the reference alleles of CYP17 and COMT. The GSTM1 homozygous gene deletion was associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer risk. These results suggest the polymorphic genes that control estrogen formation and disposition interact significantly with other risk factors to influence breast cancer risk.
PubMed ID
21129090 View in PubMed
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Demographics, management, and welfare of nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176635
Source
Can Vet J. 2004 Dec;45(12):1004-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Julie L Christie
Caroline J Hewson
Christopher B Riley
Mary A Mcniven
Ian R Dohoo
Luis A Bate
Author Affiliation
Sir James Dunn Animal Welfare Centre, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.
Source
Can Vet J. 2004 Dec;45(12):1004-11
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry - statistics & numerical data
Animal Welfare - statistics & numerical data
Animals
Demography
Horses
Humans
Ownership - statistics & numerical data
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Abstract
There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement included parasite control, dental and hoof care, and tail docking. The mean fecal egg count was 428 eggs per gram; 76% of owners never removed manure from the pasture. Sixty-two percent of horses had never had a veterinary dental examination. Many horses had hoof defects (excessively long hooves, 26.8%; hoof wall breaks, 32.0%; and white line disease, 8.5%). Many (54.9%) draft horses had docked tails. These results suggest owners might benefit their horses by receiving education in aspects of equine care.
Notes
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PubMed ID
15646847 View in PubMed
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Does the type of provider and the place of residence matter in the utilization of prenatal ultrasonography? Evidence from Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108256
Source
Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2013 Oct;11(5):471-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Harminder Guliani
Ardeshir Sepehri
John Serieux
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada, Harminder.Guliani@uregina.ca.
Source
Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2013 Oct;11(5):471-84
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alberta - epidemiology
British Columbia - epidemiology
Family Practice - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Obstetrics - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - ultrasonography
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Ultrasonography, Prenatal - economics - utilization
Young Adult
Abstract
There has been a proliferation of repeat prenatal ultrasound examinations per pregnancy in many developed countries over the past 20 years, yet few studies have examined the main determinants of the utilization of prenatal ultrasonography.
The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the type of provider, place of residence and a wide range of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the frequency of prenatal ultrasounds in Canada, while controlling for maternal risk profiles.
The study utilized the data set of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES) conducted by Statistics Canada in 2006. Using an appropriate count data regression model, the study assessed the influence of a wide range of socioeconomic, demographic, maternal risk factors and types of provider on the number of prenatal ultrasounds. The regression model was further extended by interacting providers with provinces to assess the differential influence of types of provider on the number of ultrasounds both across and within provinces.
The results suggested that, in addition to maternal risk factors, the number of ultrasounds was also influenced by the type of healthcare provider and geographic regions. Obstetricians/gynaecologists were likely to recommend more ultrasounds than family physicians, midwives and nurse practitioners. Similarly, birthing women who received their care in Ontario were likely to have more ultrasounds than women who received their prenatal care in other provinces/territories. Additional analysis involving interactions between providers and provinces suggested that the inter-provincial variations were particularly more pronounced for family physicians/general practitioners than for obstetricians/gynaecologists. Similarly, the results for intra-provincial variations suggested that compared with obstetricians/gynaecologists, family physicians/GPs ordered fewer ultrasound examinations in Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Alberta and Newfoundland.
After controlling for a number of socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as maternal risk factors, it was found that the type of provider and the province of prenatal care were statistically significant determinants of the frequency of use of ultrasounds. Additional analysis involving interactions between providers and provinces indicated wide intra- and inter-provincial variations in the use of prenatal ultrasounds. New policy measures are needed at the provincial and federal government levels to achieve more appropriate use of prenatal ultrasonography.
PubMed ID
23912308 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 Nov;28(4):309-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
P M Brna
K E Gordon
J M Dooley
E P Wood
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University and the IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 Nov;28(4):309-12
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chi-Square Distribution
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Spasms, Infantile - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate population based incidence rates for infantile spasms (IS) and to study our clinical impression that the incidence of IS has recently decreased in the Canadian Provinces of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
Birth cohorts from 1978 to 1998, identified through the hospital health records, EEG records and physician computerized databases, were followed for two years for the development of IS. Disease incidence rates were calculated using denominators derived from Statistics Canada's reported annual live birth rates.
The inclusion criteria for IS were fulfilled by 75 patients. The overall incidence of IS was 30.7/100,000 live births (95% Cl 24.3, 38.8). Etiologic classification was symptomatic for 51 cases (68%), cryptogenic for 18 (24%), and idiopathic in six children (8%). Although there were more males (N=44) than females (N=31), the incidence rates were similar. There was a marked variability in annual and five-year incidence rates.
Although the clinical characteristics of our patients were similar to other reported IS populations, the instability in IS incidence rates indicates a need for caution in interpreting smaller IS epidemiologic studies.
PubMed ID
11766774 View in PubMed
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Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114889
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2013 Apr;49(2):394-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Wendela Wapenaar
Herman W Barkema
Ryan O'Handley
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, College Road, Sutton Bonington, LE12 5RD, UK. wendela.wapenaar@nottingham.ac.uk
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2013 Apr;49(2):394-7
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild - parasitology
Coyotes - parasitology
Disease Reservoirs - parasitology - veterinary
Feces - parasitology
Female
Foxes - parasitology
Humans
Male
Parasite Egg Count - veterinary
Prevalence
Prince Edward Island - epidemiology
Species Specificity
Toxocara canis - isolation & purification
Toxocariasis - epidemiology - parasitology - transmission
Zoonoses
Abstract
Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.
PubMed ID
23568915 View in PubMed
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31 records – page 1 of 4.