Recent studies have indicated deteriorated working conditions of health care personnel. To have an efficient health care organization requires good working conditions and the well-being of the personnel. Today there are no "gold-standard" assessment tools measuring psychosocial working conditions. The aim of this study was to develop two valid and reliable questionnaires, one generic and one specific, measuring psychosocial working conditions for general practitioners (GPs) and district nurses (DNs) in Sweden, with a special emphasis on organizational changes. The construction of the questionnaires were made after a stepwise developing phase including literature review, interviews, and a pilot study. The pilot study included GPs n = 42 and DNs n = 39. The questionnaires were later on used in a main study (GPs n = 465, DNs n = 465). A factor analysis was carried out and showed that there were fewer items in the main study that had factor loading > or = 0.40 in more than one factor, compared to the pilot study. The factors from the main study were easier to label and had good correspondence with other studies. After this stepwise development phase good construct validity and internal consistency were established for the questionnaire.
Decision Boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of health interventions provided to clinicians before they meet the patient, to prepare them to help patients make informed and value-based decisions. Our objective is to explore the barriers and facilitators to using Decision Boxes in clinical practice, more precisely factors stemming from (1) the Decision Boxes themselves, (2) the primary healthcare team (PHT), and (3) the primary care practice environment.
A two-phase mixed methods study will be conducted. Eight Decision Boxes relevant to primary care, and written in both English and in French, will be hosted on a website together with a tutorial to introduce the Decision Box. The Decision Boxes will be delivered as weekly emails over a span of eight weeks to clinicians of PHTs (family physicians, residents and nurses) in five primary care clinics located across two Canadian provinces. Using a web-questionnaire, clinicians will rate each Decision Box with the Information Assessment Method (cognitive impacts, relevance, usefulness, expected benefits) and with a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to study the determinants of clinicians' intention to use what they learned from that Decision Box in their patient encounter (attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control). Web-log data will be used to monitor clinicians' access to the website. Following the 8-week intervention, we will conduct semi-structured group interviews with clinicians and individual interviews with clinic administrators to explore contextual factors influencing the use of the Decision Boxes. Data collected from questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews will be combined to identify factors potentially influencing implementation of Decision Boxes in clinical practice by clinicians of PHTs.
This project will allow tailoring of Decision Boxes and their delivery to overcome the specific barriers identified by clinicians of PHTs to improve the implementation of shared decision making in this setting.
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In many countries, public sector has major difficulties in recruiting and retaining physicians to work as general practitioners (GPs). We examined the effects of taking up a public sector GP position and leaving public sector GP work on the changes of job satisfaction, job involvement and turnover intentions. In addition, we examined whether organizational justice in the new position would moderate these associations. This was a four-year prospective questionnaire study including two measurements among 1581 (948 women, 60%) Finnish physicians. A change to work as a public GP was associated with a substantial decrease in job satisfaction and job involvement when new GPs experienced that their primary care organization was unfair. However, high organizational justice was able to buffer against these negative effects. Those who changed to work as public GPs had 2.8 times and those who stayed as public GPs had 1.6 times higher likelihood of having turnover intentions compared to those who worked in other positions. Organizational justice was not able to buffer against this effect. Primary care organizations should pay more attention to their GPs - especially to newcomers - and to the fairness how management behaves towards employees, how processes are determined, and how rewards are distributed.
Dr. Allen is clinical professor of family medicine and vice dean for regional affairs, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Ms. Ballweg is professor of family medicine and director, MEDEX Northwest Program, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Dr. Cosgrove is professor of medicine and vice dean for academic affairs, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Ms. Engle is director of operations, Office of Regional Affairs, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Dr. Robinson is professor of rehabilitation medicine and vice dean for graduate medical education and clinical affairs, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Dr. Rosenblatt is professor and vice chair of family medicine and director, Rural/Underserved Opportunities Program, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Ms. Skillman is deputy director, WWAMI Rural Health Research Center and UW Center for Health Workforce Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Ms. Wenrich is affiliate assistant professor of biomedical informatics and medical education, University of Washington School of Medicine, and chief of staff, UW Medicine, Seattle, Washington.
The authors examine the potential impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) on a large medical education program in the Northwest United States that builds the primary care workforce for its largely rural region. The 42-year-old Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho (WWAMI) program, hosted by the University of Washington School of Medicine, is one of the nation's most successful models for rural health training. The program has expanded training and retention of primary care health professionals for the region through medical school education, graduate medical education, a physician assistant training program, and support for practicing health professionals.The ACA and resulting accountable care organizations (ACOs) present potential challenges for rural settings and health training programs like WWAMI that focus on building the health workforce for rural and underserved populations. As more Americans acquire health coverage, more health professionals will be needed, especially in primary care. Rural locations may face increased competition for these professionals. Medical schools are expanding their positions to meet the need, but limits on graduate medical education expansion may result in a bottleneck, with insufficient residency positions for graduating students. The development of ACOs may further challenge building a rural workforce by limiting training opportunities for health professionals because of competing demands and concerns about cost, efficiency, and safety associated with training. Medical education programs like WWAMI will need to increase efforts to train primary care physicians and increase their advocacy for student programs and additional graduate medical education for rural constituents.
PURPOSE: During the last 15 years, the proportion of U.S. allopathic medical graduates planning to pursue alternative careers (other than full-time clinical practice) has been increasing. The authors sought to identify factors associated with contemporary medical graduates' career-setting plans. METHOD: The authors obtained anonymous data from the 108,408 U.S. allopathic medical graduates who completed the 1997-2004 national Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire (GQ). Using multinomial logistic regression, responses to eight GQ items regarding graduates' demographics, medical school characteristics, and specialty choice were tested in association with three career-setting plans (full-time university faculty; other, including government agencies, non-university-based research, or medical or health care administration; or undecided) compared with full-time (nonacademic) clinical practice. RESULTS: The sample included 94,101 (86.8% of 108,408) GQ respondents with complete data. From 1997 to 2004, the proportions of graduates planning full-time clinical practice careers decreased from 51.3% to 46.5%; the proportions selecting primary care and obstetrics-gynecology specialties also decreased. Graduates reporting Hispanic race/ethnicity or no response to race/ethnicity, lower debt, dual advanced degrees at graduation, and psychiatric-specialty choice were consistently more likely to plan to pursue alternative careers. Graduates selecting an obstetrics-gynecology specialty/ subspecialty were consistently less likely to plan to pursue alternative careers. Being female, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black or Native American/Alaskan, and selecting non-primary-care specialties were variably associated with alternative career plans. CONCLUSIONS: As the medical student population becomes more demographically diverse, as graduates increasingly select non-primary-care specialties, and as dual-degree-program graduates and alternative career opportunities for physicians expand, the proportion of U.S. graduates planning full-time clinical practice careers likely will continue to decline.