The automated system for mass examination and follow-up of therapeutic patients has been developed, tested and introduced with the help of computer family "Electronics" and "IBM". The system is designed for the use at polyclinics, health units and health centres. The following programmes are provided: premedical screening, ECG data interpretation, analysis of physician's data and management of follow-up, primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases. The application of this system in 2336 persons resulted in substantial saving of physician's time during mass examinations, improved the quality of screening and follow-up.
The rising flow of information affects the health and affords ground for strengthening measures of hygienists. There is considered the place of information hygiene in preventive medicine. There are discussed physical and hygienic aspects of measurement and evaluation of information, there are considered some of their negative consequences. International and local regulations and guidance documents in this area are presented. In the light of the strategy of innovative development of Russia there are considered hygienic aspects of innovation and the improvement of hygienic standards.
Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery disease do not result from climate change, but they do share causes with climate change. Burning fossil fuels, for example, is the major source of greenhouse gases, but it also makes pervasive physical inactivity possible. Similarly, modern agriculture's enormous production of livestock contributes substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, and it is the source of many of our most energy-rich foods. Physicians and societies of medical professionals have a particular responsibility, therefore, to contribute to the public discourse about climate change and what to do about it.
ReprintIn: Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Aug 25;170(35):2667-818761852
In September 2003, a scientific meeting was held in Rome to revive the International Cluster Headache Research Group (or "Cluster Club") tradition. This group of specialists was originally formed in the late 1970s by Ottar Sjaastad in order to promote research ideas, and to generate papers and other important information in this field. Its meetings, the last of which had taken place in 1994, had been informal events at which there was ample time for lively discussion. The last decade of the 20th century brought a significant increase in clinical and experimental research into cluster headache (CH), and this review summarizes some of the results of this research. The male preponderance of CH has been shown to be progressively decreasing over the years. Revised clinical criteria and a modern classification have been presented. First-degree relatives of probands with CH have been shown to have an increased risk of suffering from CH compared with the general population. Genetic analysis suggests that an autosomal dominant gene plays a role in some families. Functional neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the condition. Positron emission tomography during provoked attacks has shown activation of the ipsilateral inferior posterior hypothalamus and it has been suggested that CH might be a functional neurovascular disorder of pacemaker or circadian regions in the hypothalamic grey matter. Subcutaneously administered sumatriptan has emerged as a highly effective acute treatment, but, in our opinion, the emphasis should be on attack prevention. Deep brain stimulation of the inferior posterior hypothalamic grey matter seems to be very promising as a novel treatment targeting the presumed central origin of pain attacks.
Confusion regarding definitions and standards of prevention and promotion programs is pervasive, as revealed by a review of such programs in Canada. This paper examines how a discussion of scientific paradigms can help clarify models of prevention and mental health promotion and proposes the complementary development of prevention and promotion programs. A paradigm shift in science contributed to the emergence of the transactional model, advocating multiple causes and dynamic transactions between the individual and the environment. Consequently, the view of prevention applying over a linear continuum and of single stressful events causing mental disorders may no longer be appropriate. It is the author's belief that the new science of chaos theory, which addresses processes involved in the development of systems, can be applied to child development and thus to the heart of prevention and promotion programs. Critical moments followed by transitions or near-chaotic behaviours lead to stable states better adapted to the environment. Prevention programs would focus on the critical moments and target groups at risk to reduce risk factors. Promotion programs would focus on stable states and target the general population to develop age-appropriate life skills. The concept of sensitive dependence on initial conditions and certain empirical studies suggest that the programs would have the greatest impact at the beginning of life. It is hoped that this effort to organize knowledge about conceptual models of prevention and mental health promotion programs will foster the development of these programs to meet the urgent needs of Canadian children.
The article covers study of major exogenic environmental factors influence on skin melanoma occurrence in Samara region, through application of various statistic analysis methods. The results prove increase in skin melanoma incidence in Samara region, that is characteristic for Russian population in general. Strong correlation is seen with increase of industrial waste volume in the region and with public nutrition structure changes.
Regional modified regression scales, complex schemes, and centile tables are highly informative regional norms-based tools employed in the preventive maintenance system. It is shown that estimates of physical development in preschool and school children groups obtained by these methods are closely related to the sanitary and epidemiological welfare in different types of educational institutions, completeness of implementation of preventive and curative measures, factors characterizing early childhood and quality of children's life, socio-psychologic family portraits. The use of regional modified regression scales and complex schemes revealed significant relationship of physical development indices and distribution of children between health groups. It is concluded that methods allowing for comprehensive evaluation of physical development ensure collection of the most valuable information during preventive examination.
The results of the screening and 1-year follow-up of pupils from two Moscow schools of general education (Moscow secondary schools) are presented. The program on preventive measures was conducted by using the playing forms of contact and influence, at one of the above schools (experimental school). Most of the adolescents of the experimental school (mean 80%) participated in the preventive measures. By the completion of the program the number of the participants increased up to 94%. A reliably significant increase in the education level on the problems about the adverse effects of smoking and beneficial effects of regular nutrition in adolescents of the experimental school was observed. The analysis of the results of the screening and follow-up of schoolchildren aged 12-13 years enables us to conclude that it is necessary to work out new criteria for the assessment of preventive measures among adolescents.
The formulation of recommendations on the use of wound dressings in pressure ulcer prevention was undertaken by a group of experts in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment from Australia, Portugal, UK and USA. After review of literature, they concluded that there is adequate evidence to recommend the use of five-layer silicone bordered dressings (Mepilex Border Sacrum(®) and 3 layer Mepilex Heel(®) dressings by Mölnlycke Health Care, Gothenburg, Sweden) for pressure ulcer prevention in the sacrum, buttocks and heels in high-risk patients, those in Emergency Department (ED), intensive care unit (ICU) and operating room (OR). Literature on which this recommendation is based includes one prospective randomised control trial, three cohort studies and two case series. Recommendations for dressing use in patients at high risk for pressure injury and shear injury were also provided.