BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of colon, endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden in the Nordic countries linked to insufficient levels of leisure time physical activity and estimate the potential for cancer prevention for these three sites by increasing physical activity levels.
METHODS: Using the Prevent macrosimulation model, the number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries over a 30-year period (2016-2045) was modelled, under different scenarios of increasing physical activity levels in the population, and compared with the projected number of cases if constant physical activity prevailed. Physical activity (moderate and vigorous) was categorised according to metabolic equivalents (MET) hours in groups with sufficient physical activity (15+ MET-hours/week), low deficit (9 to
BACKGROUND: Greater education is associated with better physical health. This has been of great concern to public health officials. Most demonstrations show that education influences mean levels of health. Little is known about the influence of education on variance in health status, or about how this influence may impact the underlying genetic and environmental sources of health problems. This study explored these influences. METHODS: In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21 522 members of same-sex pairs in the Danish Twin Registry born between 1931 and 1982 reported physical health in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. We used quantitative genetic models to examine how genetic and environmental variance in physical health differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. RESULTS: and Conclusions As expected, greater education was associated with better physical health. Greater education was also associated with smaller variance in health status. In both sexes, 2 standard deviations (SDs) above mean educational level, variance in physical health was only about half that among those 2 SDs below. This was because fewer highly educated people reported poor health. There was less total variance in health primarily because there was less genetic variance. Education apparently reduced expression of genetic susceptibilities to poor health. The patterns of genetic and environmental correlations suggested that this might take place because more educated people manage their environments to protect their health. If so, fostering the personal charactieristics associated with educational attainment could be important in reducing the education-health gradient.
This quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) (HPV6, -11, -16, and -18) vaccine long-term follow-up (LTFU) study is an ongoing extension of a pivotal clinical study (FUTURE II) taking place in the Nordic region. The LTFU study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness, immunogenicity, and safety of the qHPV vaccine (Gardasil) for at least 10 years following completion of the base study. The current report presents immunogenicity data from testing samples of the year 5 LTFU visit (approximately 9 years after vaccination). FUTURE II vaccination arm subjects, who consented to being followed in the LTFU, donated serum at regular intervals and in 2012. Anti-HPV6, -11, -16, and -18 antibodies were detected by the competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and in addition, serum samples from 2012 were analyzed by the total IgG Luminex immunoassay (LIA) (n = 1,598). cLIA geometric mean titers (GMTs) remained between 70% and 93% of their month 48 value depending on HPV type. For all HPV types, the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the year 9 GMTs remained above the serostatus cutoff value. The proportion of subjects who remained seropositive based on the IgG LIA was higher than the proportion based on cLIA, especially for anti-HPV18. As expected, the anti-HPV serum IgG and cLIA responses were strongly correlated for all HPV types. Anti-HPV GMTs and the proportion of vaccinated individuals who are seropositive remain high for up to 9 years of follow-up after vaccination.
AIM: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children /=2 years. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that an estimated 75% of all IPD cases among children
A Danish, randomized study with Hemoccult-II, including 60,000 persons between 45 and 74 years old, began in 1985. Methods of increasing acceptability are described for the first 8000. The first 1000 refusals are also analyzed. Written invitations including prestamped envelopes for return of the slides resulted in an acceptability of 58.8%. Two reminders increased the figure to 65.6%. Personal attempts to change the mind of those refusing increased the last figure to 68.9%. Incomplete slides were returned by 49 persons, but on request 43 sent a complete set. All 78 persons with positive tests had colonoscopy, which detected carcinomas in 10 and adenomas in 39. The study confirmed that results of trials from different countries are difficult to compare because of major differences among populations and methods. However, the present results were similar to those obtained in a Swedish study including only persons between 60 and 64 years old.