BACKGROUND: Greater education is associated with better physical health. This has been of great concern to public health officials. Most demonstrations show that education influences mean levels of health. Little is known about the influence of education on variance in health status, or about how this influence may impact the underlying genetic and environmental sources of health problems. This study explored these influences. METHODS: In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21 522 members of same-sex pairs in the Danish Twin Registry born between 1931 and 1982 reported physical health in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. We used quantitative genetic models to examine how genetic and environmental variance in physical health differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. RESULTS: and Conclusions As expected, greater education was associated with better physical health. Greater education was also associated with smaller variance in health status. In both sexes, 2 standard deviations (SDs) above mean educational level, variance in physical health was only about half that among those 2 SDs below. This was because fewer highly educated people reported poor health. There was less total variance in health primarily because there was less genetic variance. Education apparently reduced expression of genetic susceptibilities to poor health. The patterns of genetic and environmental correlations suggested that this might take place because more educated people manage their environments to protect their health. If so, fostering the personal charactieristics associated with educational attainment could be important in reducing the education-health gradient.
AIM: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children /=2 years. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that an estimated 75% of all IPD cases among children
A Danish, randomized study with Hemoccult-II, including 60,000 persons between 45 and 74 years old, began in 1985. Methods of increasing acceptability are described for the first 8000. The first 1000 refusals are also analyzed. Written invitations including prestamped envelopes for return of the slides resulted in an acceptability of 58.8%. Two reminders increased the figure to 65.6%. Personal attempts to change the mind of those refusing increased the last figure to 68.9%. Incomplete slides were returned by 49 persons, but on request 43 sent a complete set. All 78 persons with positive tests had colonoscopy, which detected carcinomas in 10 and adenomas in 39. The study confirmed that results of trials from different countries are difficult to compare because of major differences among populations and methods. However, the present results were similar to those obtained in a Swedish study including only persons between 60 and 64 years old.
To examine whether socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with change in cardiovascular risk factors and meeting treatment targets for cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with screen-detected Type 2 DM at six-year follow-up.
The study population was 1533 people with Type 2 DM identified from at stepwise diabetes screening programme in general practice during 2001-2006 in the ADDITION-Denmark study. The ADDITION-study was performed as a randomised trial but the two randomisation groups were analysed as one cohort in this study. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline and repeated at follow-up (mean: 5.9 [1.4] years). Information on SEP, redeemed antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment were obtained from Danish registers. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate change in cardiovascular risk factors and difference in meeting treatment targets.
The change in HbA1c, cholesterol, blood pressure and BMI were virtually the same across educational level, income level, occupational status or cohabiting status. Overall, the ability to meet treatment targets for HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure was not modified by SEP-group. A higher proportion of people with lower educational level or lower income level in the intensive care redeemed anti-hypertensive treatment compared to people with higher educational or income levels.
Screen-detection and early treatment onset did not introduce socioeconomic inequality in metabolic control in people with screen-detected Type 2 DM at six-year follow-up.