Vaccination has dramatically reduced the morbidity and mortality rates of a number of diseases. The crucial element of vaccination programs is commitment to widespread coverage and to containment of outbreaks. Vaccines have led to virtual elimination of poliomyelitis and promise to eliminate measles. The incidence of congenital rubella syndrome will probably only be diminished if vaccination is extended to all 1-year-olds and susceptible prepubertal girls. The employment of diphtheria toxoid is one of the great success stories in public health. The incidence of pertussis has declined because of the diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine given to infants, although elimination of the disease will probably have to await development of a more potent pertussis antigen. A remarkable reduction in the incidence of tetanus and tuberculosis has also been achieved.
[Periodic medical examination. Update 1990: 3. Interventions looking to prevent cancer of the lung using other methods than smoking cessation. The Canadian Study Group for Periodic Medical Examination].
The effect of a multifactorial intervention programme on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke incidence and total mortality was determined in a random sample of men, 47-55 years old at entry. The intervention group comprised 10 004 men, and the two control groups were of similar size. The intervention consisted of antihypertensive treatment in subjects with screening blood pressure above 175 mmHg systolic or 115 mmHg diastolic, dietary advice to men with serum cholesterol levels above 260 mg per 100 ml (= 6.8 mMol l-1), advice to stop smoking to subjects who smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day. The intervention was applied for 10 years during which time CHD and stroke incidence and mortality were followed by means of special registers. Participation rate at first screening examination was 75%. The risk factor levels, i.e. blood pressure, serum cholesterol and smoking decreased markedly during 10 years in the intervention group, but also among the control groups. Total mortality, stroke and CHD incidence did not differ significantly between the intervention group and any of the two control groups. We conclude that a decrease has taken place in all three major risk factors for CHD in the general male population in Göteborg, Sweden. Strategies other than intervention on high-risk individuals must be chosen if a major impact on disease incidence is to be achieved in the general population.
Staphylococcus aureus is a common udder pathogen in dairy cows, and may cause severe mastitis problems in some herds. In herds where normal control measures are not successful, vaccination might be an additional tool to use if sufficiently efficient. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available vaccine (Startvac(?), Hipra, Spain) in two commercial Swedish dairy herds where the control programs for S. aureus mastitis had been unsuccessful. Within each herd cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups, and effects on udder health and milk production during 120 days after calving, and survival during the following lactation were evaluated.
A field study was performed in two high producing Swedish herds having approximately 600 (herd A) and 200 (herd B) cows. During 12 months, cows with odd numbers were vaccinated three times around calving according to label protocol, while cows with even numbers constituted the not vaccinated control group. Quarter milk samples for bacteriological culturing were collected from all cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. The outcome was evaluated during 120 days after calving using data on SCC and daily milk yield at monthly milk recordings, and incidence of mastitis due to S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci and coliforms. Cow survival throughout lactation was also studied. In herd A, 239 and 240 cows were included in the vaccinated and control groups, respectively. Corresponding numbers for herd B was 126 and 151 cows. Significant differences between vaccinated and control groups were not found in any of the parameters investigated.
Vaccination with a commercial polyvalent vaccine did not have any beneficial effects on udder health, milk production or survival in two commercial dairy herds with mastitis problems due to S. aureus.
The Swedish control program for salmonella includes restrictions and on-farm control measures when salmonella is detected in a herd. Required control measures are subsidised by the government. This provides an opportunity to study costs for on-farm salmonella control. The aim of this study was to describe the costs for on-farm salmonella control in Swedish cattle herds and to investigate the effects of herd factors on these costs in dairy herds.
During the 15 years studied there had been a total of 124 restriction periods in 118 cattle herds; 89 dairy herds, 28 specialised fattening herds and three suckler herds. The average costs per herd for on-farm salmonella control was 4.60 million SEK with a median of 1.06 million SEK corresponding to approximately 490 000 and 110 000 EUR. The range was 0.01 to 41 million SEK corresponding to 1080 EUR to 4.44 million EUR per farm. The costs cover measures required in herd-specific control plans, generally measures improving herd hygiene. A mixed linear model was used to investigate associations between herd factors and costs for on-farm salmonella control in dairy herds. Herd size and length of the restriction period were both significantly associated with costs for on-farm control of salmonella with larger herds and longer periods of restrictions leading to higher costs. Serotype detected and administrative changes in the Swedish Board of Agriculture aiming at reducing costs were not associated with costs for on-farm salmonella control.
On-farm control of salmonella in Swedish cattle herds incurred high costs but the costs also varied largely between herds. Larger herds and longer restriction periods increased the costs for on-farm control of salmonella in Swedish dairy herds. This causes concern for future costs for the Swedish salmonella control program as herd sizes are increasing.
Cites: J Appl Microbiol. 2004;96(2):311-914723692
Cites: Prev Vet Med. 2005 Sep 30;71(1-2):35-4416023233