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1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
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ß2 -adrenergic receptor Thr164IIe polymorphism, blood pressure and ischaemic heart disease in 66?750 individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131722
Source
J Intern Med. 2012 Mar;271(3):305-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
M. Thomsen
M. Dahl
A. Tybjaerg-Hansen
B G Nordestgaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
J Intern Med. 2012 Mar;271(3):305-14
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Blood Pressure - genetics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Hypertension - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal
Myocardial Ischemia - genetics
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 - genetics
Sex Factors
Abstract
The ß(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is located on smooth muscle cells and is an important regulator of smooth muscle tone. The Thr164Ile polymorphism (rs1800888) in the ADRB2 gene is rare but has profound functional consequences on receptor function and could cause lifelong elevated smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
A total of 66 750 individuals from two large Danish general population studies were genotyped, and 1943 Thr164Ile heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes were identified.
Thr164Ile genotype was associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women (trend: P = 0.04 and 0.02): systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 5% and 2%, respectively, in female homozygotes compared with female noncarriers. All female Thr164Ile homozygotes had hypertension compared with 58% of female heterozygotes and 54% of female noncarriers (chi-square: P = 0.001). Female Thr164Ile homozygotes and heterozygotes had odds ratios for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) of 2.93 (0.56-15.5) and 1.28 (1.03-1.61), respectively, compared with female noncarriers (trend: P = 0.007). These differences were not observed in men. Furthermore, Gly16Arg (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714) in the ADRB2 gene were not associated with blood pressure, hypertension or CVD either in the population overall or in women and men separately.
ADRB2 Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of IHD amongst women in the general population. These findings, particularly for homozygotes, are novel.
PubMed ID
21883537 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of disease incidence in men with an abnormal hormone pattern.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47352
Source
J Intern Med. 2003 Oct;254(4):386-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
R. Rosmond
S. Wallerius
P. Wanger
L. Martin
G. Holm
P. Björntorp
Author Affiliation
Cardiovascular Institute, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
J Intern Med. 2003 Oct;254(4):386-90
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Angina Pectoris - epidemiology - metabolism
Biological Markers - blood
Blood pressure
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - metabolism
Cerebrovascular Accident - epidemiology - metabolism
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - metabolism
Follow-Up Studies
Glucose - analysis
Humans
Hydrocortisone - analysis
Hypertension - epidemiology - metabolism
Incidence
Insulin - analysis
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - metabolism
Sweden - epidemiology
Testosterone - blood
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that abnormal levels of cortisol and testosterone might increase the risk of serious somatic diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 5-year follow-up study in middle-aged men. METHODS: A population-based cohort study conducted in 1995 amongst 141 Swedish men born in 1944, in whom a clinical examination supplemented by medical history aimed to disclose the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke), type 2 diabetes and hypertension were performed at baseline and at follow-up in the year 2000. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured repeatedly over the day. Serum testosterone concentrations were also determined. Using the baseline data, an algorithm was constructed, which classified the secretion pattern of cortisol and testosterone from each individual as being normal or abnormal. RESULTS: By the end of follow-up, men with an abnormal hormone secretion pattern (n = 73) had elevated mean arterial pressure (P = 0.003), fasting insulin (P = 0.009) and insulin : glucose ratio (P = 0.005) compared with men with a normal secretion pattern (n = 68). Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist : hip ratio were significantly elevated in both groups. However, the 5-year incidence of CVD, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension were significantly higher (P
PubMed ID
12974877 View in PubMed
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6-month CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - a case study from the couple's perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165224
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2008 Jun;7(2):103-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Anders Broström
Peter Johansson
Jan Albers
Jan Wiberg
Eva Svanborg
Bengt Fridlund
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. andbr@imv.liu.se
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2008 Jun;7(2):103-12
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Attitude to Health
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure - adverse effects - psychology
Cost of Illness
Fear
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Frustration
Humans
Male
Nursing Methodology Research
Obesity, Morbid - complications
Qualitative Research
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Severity of Illness Index
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive - diagnosis - etiology - prevention & control - psychology
Snoring - etiology - psychology
Social Behavior
Spouses - psychology
Stress, Psychological - etiology - psychology
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce mortality and morbidity, but low compliance rates are seen.
To explore and describe the experiences of CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe OSAS during a 6-month period from the couple's perspective. METHODS AND THE CASE: A single case study with a phenomenographic approach was employed. Diagnostic procedures of OSAS and initiation of treatment with Auto-CPAP, humidifier and a nasal mask were performed during 4 visits. Conceptions were collected at 4 different occasions during the 6-month period (before, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment initiation) by means of interviews with a 33-year old male patient and his female partner.
Totally 17 different structural aspects were found to fluctuate during the 6-month period in relation to; influence of stressors, social reactions and adaptation to increase compliance.
An increased knowledge about the influence of stressors, the social reactions, and the adaptation can help healthcare personnel to identify and better understand concerns of other patients and spouses during different time phases of the initial 6-month period of CPAP-treatment.
Notes
Comment In: Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2008 Jun;7(2):89-9018396463
PubMed ID
17291832 View in PubMed
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A 6-month, randomized, double-masked comparison of latanoprost with timolol in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212248
Source
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1996 Apr;74(2):140-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1996
Author
B. Friström
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1996 Apr;74(2):140-4
Date
Apr-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Double-Blind Method
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Glaucoma, Open-Angle - drug therapy - physiopathology
Humans
Intraocular Pressure - drug effects
Male
Middle Aged
Ocular Hypertension - drug therapy - physiopathology
Ophthalmic Solutions
Prostaglandins F, Synthetic - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Safety
Scandinavia
Timolol - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Abstract
The intraocular pressure reducing effect and side-effects of latanoprost, a phenyl-substituted prostaglandin analogue, were compared with those of timolol, in a group of 31 glaucomatous or ocular hypertensive patients, divided into three subgroups. The study was randomized and double masked. At the end of 6 month's treatment with latanoprost 0.005% once daily, either as a morning dose or as an evening dose, there was a reduction in intraocular pressure of 33% (p
PubMed ID
8739678 View in PubMed
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A 6-year experience with urine drug testing by family service agencies in Nova Scotia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193186
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Oct 1;121(3):151-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2001
Author
A D Fraser
Author Affiliation
Clinical & Forensic Toxicologist, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, 1278 Tower Road, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 2Y9. adfraser@is.dal.ca
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Oct 1;121(3):151-6
Date
Oct-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Custody
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Humans
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Social Work
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - urine
Abstract
The objective of this study is to describe a urine drug-testing program implemented for parents with a history of substance abuse by family service agencies in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Nurse collectors went to the parents' home to obtain urine specimens under direct observation and then delivered the specimens to the toxicology laboratory or arranged shipment by courier under chain of custody. Each urine specimen was screened for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite, opiates, amphetamines and benzodiazepines, ethyl alcohol and creatinine. All positive screening tests were confirmed by another method such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In 15,979 urine specimens collected from 1994 to 1999, the percent positive rate for one (or more) drugs/metabolites ranged from 45.6% (1994-1996) to 30.0% (1998, 1999). A total of 575 specimens (3.7%) were dilute (urine creatinine
PubMed ID
11566417 View in PubMed
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7-year stability of blood pressure in the Canadian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197147
Source
Prev Med. 2000 Oct;31(4):403-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
P T Katzmarzyk
T. Rankinen
L. Pérusse
R M Malina
C. Bouchard
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada M3J IP3. katzmarz@yorku.ca
Source
Prev Med. 2000 Oct;31(4):403-9
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aging - physiology
Blood Pressure - physiology
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to examine the 7-year stability of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures in the Canadian population.
The sample included 1,503 participants 7-69 years of age from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey who were remeasured in Campbell's Survey of 1988. Both SBP and DBP were adjusted for the effects of body mass index (BMI) using regression procedures.
Interage correlations from baseline to follow-up ranged from -0.17 to 0.61 for SBP and from -0.22 to 0. 51 for DBP. With few exceptions, correlations were positive and significant, and were highest and most consistent in adulthood. Further, between 27 and 39% of participants in the upper or lower quintiles in 1981 remained there in 1988. There were few differences in adiposity between those who remained in the upper or lower quintiles and those who did not. One exception was that males who remained in the upper quintile of SBP had greater values for BMI, sum of skinfolds, and waist circumference at baseline. Among adults, the best predictor of future blood pressure was baseline blood pressure, which accounted for between 12 and 34% of the variance in follow-up blood pressure, followed by age, follow-up BMI, and, in females, baseline physical activity levels.
Blood pressure demonstrated low to moderate stability over 7 years in Canada, and baseline level of adiposity was related to the stability of SBP in males.
PubMed ID
11006066 View in PubMed
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The 16-year incidence, progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy in a young population-based Danish cohort with type 1 diabetes mellitus: The Danish cohort of pediatric diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259744
Source
Acta Diabetol. 2014;51(3):413-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Rebecca Broe
Malin Lundberg Rasmussen
Ulrik Frydkjaer-Olsen
Birthe Susanne Olsen
Henrik Bindesboel Mortensen
Tunde Peto
Jakob Grauslund
Source
Acta Diabetol. 2014;51(3):413-20
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood pressure
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - complications - metabolism
Diabetic Retinopathy - epidemiology - etiology - metabolism - pathology
Disease Progression
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Male
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim was to investigate the long-term incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and associated risk factors in young Danish patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. In 1987-89, a pediatric cohort involving approximately 75 % of all children with Type 1 diabetes in Denmark
PubMed ID
24193810 View in PubMed
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19th century pioneers of intensive therapy in North America. Part 1: George Edward Fell.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160003
Source
Crit Care Resusc. 2007 Dec;9(4):377-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Ronald V Trubuhovich
Author Affiliation
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. rvt.met@pl.net
Source
Crit Care Resusc. 2007 Dec;9(4):377-93
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aphorisms and Proverbs as Topic
Canada
History, 19th Century
Humans
Intensive Care - history
Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation - history
Respiration, Artificial - history - instrumentation
Resuscitation - history
Tracheotomy - history
Abstract
For three decades after Marshall Hall's 1856 strictures against "forcing methods" and bellows for artificial ventilation (AV), human "forced respiration" (equivalent to intermittent positive pressure ventilation) was virtually abandoned. Various arm-chest manoeuvres often proved inadequate to save life. After doctor and engineer George Fell, of Buffalo (New York) (1849-1918), failed to save the life of an opiate-poisoned patient using Silvester's popular method, he resolved to try his animal laboratory AV method (bellows and tracheotomy). Following his first success in a landmark case (1887), he better adapted the apparatus for human use and soon succeeded with further difficult cases, but was unable to raise enthusiasm for his "Fell method" of AV. His reports of successful rescues to prestigious Washington Congresses met derision (1887) and indifference (1893), although by then they detailed 28 "human lives saved", mostly after opiate poisoning, and a switch from tracheotomies to face masks (simpler, but with a few complications). Continuing with rescues throughout the 1890s, Fell personally achieved recoveries after AV for as long as 73.5 hours (1896), and over 78 hours (1899). He argued for his method repeatedly with many talks, much documentation, and pleas for its use in other ventilatory crises. Despite his endeavours and successes, Fell was unable to secure widespread uptake of forced respiration, but others adopted his principles. Joseph O'Dwyer modified Fell's face mask-tracheotomy system by incorporating an intralaryngeal tube, and this "Fell-O'Dwyer apparatus" was used for neurosurgical cases (1894), also revolutionising intrathoracic surgery (1899).
PubMed ID
18052905 View in PubMed
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4374 records – page 1 of 438.