BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that premenopausal endogenous estradiol may be associated with age at menarche and adult overweight and obesity, potentially contributing to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We assessed age at menarche by questionnaire among 204 healthy Norwegian women, aged 25-35 years. Measures of body composition included body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat percentage dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, (DEXA). Daily salivary 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)) concentrations were collected throughout one entire menstrual cycle and assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Linear regression analyses and linear mixed models for repeated measures were used and potential confounding factors and effect modifiers were tested. RESULTS: Among women with an early age at menarche (
The primary aim of the study was to assess the incidence of intracavitary pathology visualized by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) in premenopausal women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to medical therapy. Secondary aims were to evaluate the clinical course when a minimally invasive therapeutic approach was applied and to examine the need for hysterectomy in this group of women over a follow-up period of two years.
Prospective cohort study.
Tertiary referral university hospital.
Between February 2004 and June 2006, 104 premenopausal women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to medical treatment were included.
Transvaginal ultrasonography and SIS were performed as first line procedures of the investigation. Hysteroscopy was undertaken for removal of focal intrauterine anomalies. Hysterectomy was only carried out when other approaches failed or were regarded as unsuitable. Women who did not undergo hysterectomy had regular follow-up consultations for at least two years.
Incidence of intrauterine focal anomalies, clinical course, and need for hysterectomy.
Following saline infusion sonohysterograhy intracavitary anomalies were visualized in 58 (55.8%) women. Over the follow-up period 80 women had successful minimally invasive treatment, while 24 women underwent hysterectomy.
The study shows that focal intracavitary lesions are common in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to medical treatment. By applying minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches acceptable bleeding patterns can be re-established in most cases, thereby resulting in a low rate of hysterectomies.
Four authoritative reviews of active smoking and breast cancer have been published since 2000, but only one considered data after 2002 and conclusions varied. Three reviews of secondhand smoke (SHS) and breast cancer (2004-2006) each came to different conclusions. With 30 new studies since 2002, further review was deemed desirable. An Expert Panel was convened by four Canadian agencies, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada and the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer to comprehensively examine the weight of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies and understanding of biological mechanisms regarding the relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer. This article summarises the panel's full report (http://www.otru.org/pdf/special/expert_panel_tobacco_breast_cancer.pdf). There are 20 known or suspected mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke, and recognised biological mechanisms that explain how exposure to these carcinogens could lead to breast cancer. Results from the nine cohort studies reporting exposure metrics more detailed than ever/never and ex/current smoker show that early age of smoking commencement, higher pack-years and longer duration of smoking increase breast cancer risk 15% to 40%. Three meta-analyses report 35% to 50% increases in breast cancer risk for long-term smokers with N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) slow acetylation genotypes. The active smoking evidence bolsters support for three meta-analyses that each reported about a 65% increase in premenopausal breast cancer risk among never smokers exposed to SHS. The Panel concluded that: 1) the association between active smoking and breast cancer is consistent with causality and 2) the association between SHS and breast cancer among younger, primarily premenopausal women who have never smoked is consistent with causality.
A healthy Nordic dietary pattern has shown beneficial effects in relation to several chronic diseases. However, no study has evaluated the association between a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI) and risk of breast cancer.
We conducted a prospective cohort study including 44,296 women, aged 29-49 at baseline in 1991-1992, who completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline, and have been followed up ever since, through the Swedish Cancer Registry and Cause of Death Registry. Each woman was assigned a HNFI score ranging from 0 to 6. We calculated multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression models with attained age as the underlying timescale. The association between the HNFI and risk of breast cancer was assessed both overall, by menopausal status and by hormone receptor status.
A total of 1,464 breast cancer cases were diagnosed during a median follow-up time of 20 years. A higher adherence to the HNFI was not associated with a lower risk of breast cancer overall, nor of varied hormone receptor status, or when we examining premenopausal and postmenopausal women separately. The multivariable RRs (95% CI) for breast cancer per 1-point increment in the HNFI were 1.02 (95% CI 0.98-1.06) for all women, 1.01 (95% CI 0.95-1.08) for premenopausal women, and 1.02 (95% CI 0.97-1.07) for postmenopausal women.
Adherence to a HNFI was not associated with breast cancer incidence in this cohort of relatively young women, regardless of menopausal status or hormone receptor status.
BACKGROUND: Adult height and insulin are thought to modify the development of breast cancer. However, little is known about the association between height and 17beta-estradiol, a key factor in breast carcinogenesis, and whether insulin modifies such an association. METHODS: Among 204 healthy women, ages 25 to 35 years, who participated in the Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Aspect I study, adult height (in centimeters) and fasting serum concentrations of insulin (pmol/L) were measured. 17beta-Estradiol concentrations were measured in daily saliva samples throughout an entire menstrual cycle through RIA. Age and multivariate linear regression models were used to study the association between adult height and 17beta-estradiol levels throughout an entire menstrual cycle and whether serum levels of fasting insulin may modify such an association. RESULTS: The women had a mean age of 30.7 years, adult height of 166.9 cm, and serum insulin of 85.7 pmol/L. For each increase of one SD in insulin levels in the upper tertile of adult height, the adjusted level of 17beta-estradiol increased by 3.1 pmol/L (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.2), equivalent to a 17.3% higher mean average concentration of 17beta-estradiol. Women with an adult height > or =170 cm (upper tertile) and insulin levels >101 pmol/L (upper quartile) experienced, on average, 41% higher 17beta-estradiol levels throughout the entire menstrual cycle compared with women with the same adult height and insulin levels
Alcohol consumption may promote aromatization of androgens to estrogens, which may partly explain the observations linking alcohol consumption to higher breast cancer risk. Whether alcohol consumption is associated with endogenous estrogen levels, and mammographic density phenotypes in premenopausal women remains unclear.
Alcohol consumption was collected by self-report and interview, using semi quantitative food frequency questionnaires, and a food diary during seven days of a menstrual cycle among 202 premenopausal women, participating in the Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Aspects (EBBA) study I. Estrogen was assessed in serum and daily in saliva across an entire menstrual cycle. Computer-assisted mammographic density (Madena) was obtained from digitized mammograms taken between days 7-12 of the menstrual cycle. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the associations between alcohol consumption, endogenous estrogen and mammographic density phenotypes.
Current alcohol consumption was positively associated with endogenous estrogen, and absolute mammographic density. We observed 18 % higher mean salivary 17ß-estradiol levels throughout the menstrual cycle, among women who consumed more than 10 g of alcohol per day compared to women who consumed less than 10 g of alcohol per day (p = 0.034). Long-term and past-year alcohol consumption was positively associated with mammographic density. We observed a positive association between alcohol consumption (past year) and absolute mammographic density; high alcohol consumers (=7 drinks/week) had a mean absolute mammographic density of 46.17 cm(2) (95 % confidence interval (CI) 39.39, 52.95), while low alcohol consumers (32.4 cm(2)), compared to low (
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Cites: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Jun;22(6):1110-723603205
American Society of Clinical Oncology endorsement of the cancer care Ontario practice guideline on adjuvant ovarian ablation in the treatment of premenopausal women with early-stage invasive breast cancer.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has policies and procedures for endorsing practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations.
The Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Guideline on Adjuvant Ovarian Ablation (OA) in the Treatment of Premenopausal Women With Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. An ad hoc review panel of experts reviewed the content.
The ASCO ad hoc OA guideline review panel concurred that the recommendations are clear, thorough, based on the most relevant scientific evidence in this content area, and present options that will be acceptable to patients. According to the CCO guideline: one, OA should not be routinely added to systemic therapy with chemotherapy, tamoxifen, or the combination of tamoxifen and chemotherapy; two, OA alone is not recommended as an alternative to any other form of systemic therapy, except in the specific case of patients who are candidates for other forms of systemic therapy but who, for some reason, will not receive any other systemic therapy (eg, patients who cannot tolerate other forms of systemic therapy or patients who choose no other form of systemic therapy); and three, when chemical suppression using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists is the chosen method of OA, in the opinion of the Breast Cancer Disease Site Group, monthly injection is the recommended mode of administration. The mode of administration in nearly all of the available trials has been monthly administration.
The ASCO review panel agrees with the recommendations as stated in the CCO guideline, with the qualification that ongoing research studies may alter the recommendations of the panel.
The relationship between body height, weight and body mass index and mammographic patterns was examined among 3,208 Norwegian women, aged 40-56 years, participating in the Third Tromsø study. Standardized measurements of height and weight were recorded. Epidemiologic data were obtained through questionnaires. Mammograms were categorized into 5 groups based on anatomic-mammographic correlations. For analysis, patterns I-III were combined into a low-risk group and patterns IV and V into a high-risk group. Odd ratios (ORs), adjusted for menopausal status, age, parity, age at first birth, age at menarche and anthropometric measures, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were calculated. Body height was associated positively with high-risk patterns, while weight and body mass index were associated inversely with high-risk patterns. Women in the highest tertile of height were twice as likely (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.6) to have high-risk patterns compared with those in the lowest tertile, and women in the highest tertile of weight were 70% less likely (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4) to have high-risk patterns compared with those in the lowest tertile. Associations with body mass index were similar to those with weight. All associations were present when stratified by menopausal status. Among post-menopausal women, the inverse associations between body weight and body mass index and high-risk patterns decreased with increasing number of years since menopause. Our results indicate that body height and weight are independently associated with the mammographic pattern among peri-menopausal women. We suggest that body height and weight are related to mammographic patterns through different mechanisms.
The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study.
The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire.
Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 0.46 (0.25-0.85) for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92), 0.58 (0.36, 0.95), 0.79 (0.63-0.99), 0.75 (0.58, 0.97), and 0.47 (0.28-0.78), respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc) or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed.
This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.
Cites: J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Oct;22(5):400-714559932
Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used to treat and to prevent breast cancer; however, its use is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen is metabolized by various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, but predominantly by CYP3A4. In this study, we examined whether a genetic variant of the CYP3A4 gene, CYP3A4*1B, influences endometrial cancer risk--alone and when associated with tamoxifen exposure. We conducted a case-control study on 566 endometrial cancer cases and 964 ethnically matched controls. The variant CYP3A4 allele was present in 6% of the controls and 9% of the endometrial cancer patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3, P = 0.02). The allele was more common in women with endometrial cancer who had been treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer (16%). Women who carried the CYP3A4*1B allele had approximately 3-fold increase in the risk of developing endometrial cancer following tamoxifen treatment, compared with women who did not take tamoxifen (P = 0.004). These findings suggest that a subgroup of breast cancer patients who carry the CYP3A4*1B allele and take tamoxifen may be at increased risk of developing endometrial cancer.