Skip header and navigation

Refine By

225 records – page 1 of 23.

Source
Pediatr Akus Ginekol. 1974 Jul-Aug;(4):63-4
Publication Type
Article

Abortion and neonaticide: ethics, practice, and policy in four nations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58480
Source
Bioethics. 2002 Jun;16(3):202-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Michael L Gross
Author Affiliation
Department of Political Science, The University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa, Israel. mgross@poli.haifa.ac.il
Source
Bioethics. 2002 Jun;16(3):202-30
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities
Abortion, Eugenic
Abortion, Legal
Adult
Comparative Study
Decision Making
Denmark
Developed Countries
Ethical Analysis
Euthanasia, Passive
Female
Fetus
Great Britain
Health Care Rationing
Homicide
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Internationality
Israel
Parents
Personhood
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Public Policy
Quality of Life
Resuscitation
Social Values
United States
Value of Life
Withholding Treatment
Abstract
Abortion, particularly later-term abortion, and neonaticide, selective non-treatment of newborns, are feasible management strategies for fetuses or newborns diagnosed with severe abnormalities. However, policy varies considerably among developed nations. This article examines abortion and neonatal policy in four nations: Israel, the US, the UK and Denmark. In Israel, late-term abortion is permitted while non-treatment of newborns is prohibited. In the US, on the other hand, later-term abortion is severely restricted, while treatment to newborns may be withdrawn. Policy in the UK and Denmark bridges some of these gaps with liberal abortion and neonatal policy. Disparate policy within and between nations creates practical and ethical difficulties. Practice diverges from policy as many practitioners find it difficult to adhere to official policy. Ethically, it is difficult to entirely justify perinatal policy in these nations. In each nation, there are elements of ethically sound policy, while other aspects cannot be defended. Ethical policy hinges on two underlying normative issues: the question of fetal/newborn status and the morality of killing and letting die. While each issue has been the subject of extensive debate, there are firm ethical norms that should serve as the basis for coherent and consistent perinatal policy. These include 1) a grant of full moral and legal status to the newborn but only partial moral and legal status to the late-term fetus 2) a general prohibition against feticide unless to save the life of the mother or prevent the birth of a fetus facing certain death or severe pain or suffering and 3) a general endorsement of neonaticide subject to a parent's assessment of the newborn's interest broadly defined to consider physical harm as well as social, psychological and or financial harm to related third parties. Policies in each of the nations surveyed diverging from these norms should be the subject of public discourse and, where possible, legislative reform.
PubMed ID
12211246 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acquisition and elimination of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy: a Danish population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163704
Source
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:94646
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Ida Vogel
Poul Thorsen
Bernard Jeune
Bo Jacobsson
Niels Ebbesen
Magnus Arpi
Annie Bremmelgaard
Birger R Møller
Source
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:94646
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria, Anaerobic - growth & development
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Incidence
Lactobacillus - growth & development
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prevalence
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Vaginosis, Bacterial - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Abstract
the aim was to examine factors associated with acquisition and elimination of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.
a group of 229 pregnant women were randomly selected from a population-based prospective cohort study of 2927. They were examined at enrollment (mean gestational weeks 16w+0d) and again in mid-third trimester (mean gestational age 32w+3d).
BV (Amsel's clinical criteria), microbiological cultures of the genital tract and questionnaire data.
BV prevalence decreased from 17% in early second trimester to 14% in mid-third trimester due to a tenfold higher elimination rate (39%) than incidence rate (4%). Heavy smokers (>10/d) in early pregnancy were at increased risk (5.3[1.1-25]) for the acquisition of BV during pregnancy, as were women receiving public benefits (4.8[1.0-22]), having a vaginal pH above 4.5(6.3[1.4-29]) or vaginal anaerobe bacteria (18[2.7-122]) at enrollment. A previous use of combined oral contraceptives was preventive for the acquisition of BV (0.2[0.03-0.96]). Elimination of BV in pregnancy tended to be associated with a heavy growth of Lactobacillus(3.2[0.8-13]) at enrollment.
acquisition of BV during pregnancy is rare and is associated with smoking, while the presence of anaerobe bacteria and a vaginal pH >4.5 are interpreted as steps on a gradual change towards BV. In the same way heavy growth of Lactobacillus spp in early pregnancy may be an indicator of women on the way to eliminate BV.
Notes
Cites: Med Hypotheses. 2000 Mar;54(3):448-5210783486
Cites: Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Sep;11(9):603-610997505
Cites: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001 Jan;20(1):65-711245329
Cites: Obstet Gynecol. 2001 May;97(5 Pt 1):643-811339909
Cites: J Perinat Med. 2002;30(6):467-7512530102
Cites: Sex Transm Infect. 2004 Feb;80(1):58-6214755039
Cites: Am J Med. 1983 Jan;74(1):14-226600371
Cites: Scand J Soc Med. 1988;16(1):49-523347827
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Mar;166(3):938-441372474
Cites: Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Aug;80(2):173-71635726
Cites: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993 Feb;72(2):99-1028383416
Cites: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 Jun;45(6):485-918518204
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;16 Suppl 4:S273-818324131
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Jul;169(1):175-88333449
Cites: BMJ. 1994 Jan 29;308(6924):295-88124116
Cites: Hum Reprod. 1994 Jun;9(6):1017-217962369
Cites: Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994 Dec;101(12):1048-537826957
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Oct;173(4):1231-57485327
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 28;333(26):1737-427491137
Cites: Hum Reprod. 1996 Jul;11(7):1575-88671507
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;178(3):580-79539529
PubMed ID
17485815 View in PubMed
Less detail

Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63107
Source
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):296-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Marie Lof
Elisabet Forsum
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutrition, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoping, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):296-302
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weight - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exertion - physiology
Female
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Pregnancy - physiology
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Running - physiology
Sleep - physiology
Sweden
Walking - physiology
Abstract
Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.
PubMed ID
16469145 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acupuncture relieves pelvic and low-back pain in late pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58300
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Mar;83(3):246-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Nina Kvorning
Catharina Holmberg
Lars Grennert
Anders Aberg
Jonas Akeson
Author Affiliation
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital of Helsingborg, Sweden. nina.kvorning-ternov@helsingborgslasarett.se
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Mar;83(3):246-50
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acupuncture Therapy - methods
Adult
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - therapy
Pain Measurement
Pelvic Pain - diagnosis - therapy
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - diagnosis - therapy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Probability
Reference Values
Severity of Illness Index
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to evaluate the analgesic effect and possible adverse effects of acupuncture for pelvic and low-back pain during the last trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: Following individual informed consent, 72 pregnant women reporting pelvic or low-back pain were randomized during pregnancy weeks 24-37 to an acupuncture group (n = 37) or to a control group (n = 35) at three maternity wards in southern Sweden. Traditional acupuncture points and local tender points (TP) were chosen according to individual pain patterns and stimulated once or twice a week until delivery or complete recovery in acupuncture patients. Control patients were given no sham stimulation. Throughout the study period each patient made weekly visual analog scale (VAS) evaluations of maximal and minimal pain intensity as well as three-point assessments of pain intensity during various activities. RESULTS: During the study period, VAS scorings of pain intensity decreased over time in 60% of patients in the acupuncture group and in 14% of those in the control group (p
PubMed ID
14995919 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse childhood experiences influence development of pain during pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266646
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015 Aug;94(8):840-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Jennifer Drevin
Jenny Stern
Eva-Maria Annerbäck
Magnus Peterson
Stephen Butler
Tanja Tydén
Anna Berglund
Margareta Larsson
Per Kristiansson
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015 Aug;94(8):840-6
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Pain Measurement
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
To investigate the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and pain with onset during pregnancy.
Cross-sectional study.
Eighteen antenatal clinics in southern Mid-Sweden.
Of 293 women invited to participate, 232 (79%) women agreed to participate in early pregnancy and were assessed in late pregnancy.
Questionnaires were distributed in early and late pregnancy. The questionnaires sought information on socio-demography, ACE, pain location by pain drawing and pain intensity by visual analogue scales. Distribution of pain was coded in 41 predetermined areas.
Pain in third trimester with onset during present pregnancy: intensity, location and number of pain locations.
In late pregnancy, 62% of the women reported any ACE and 72% reported any pain location with onset during the present pregnancy. Among women reporting any ACE the median pain intensity was higher compared with women without such an experience (p = 0.01). The accumulated ACE displayed a positive association with the number of reported pain locations in late pregnancy (rs = 0.19, p = 0.02). This association remained significant after adjusting for background factors in multiple regression analysis (p = 0.01). When ACE was dichotomized the prevalence of pain did not differ between women with and without ACE. The subgroup of women reporting physical abuse as a child reported a higher prevalence of sacral and pelvic pain (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.02, respectively).
Adverse childhood experiences were associated with higher pain intensities and larger pain distributions in late pregnancy, which are risk factors for transition to chronic pain postpartum.
PubMed ID
25965273 View in PubMed
Less detail

Allergy prevention by maternal elimination diet during late pregnancy--a 5-year follow-up of a randomized study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16058
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992 Mar;89(3):709-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1992
Author
K. Fälth-Magnusson
N I Kjellman
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping, Sweden.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992 Mar;89(3):709-13
Date
Mar-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Disease Susceptibility
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Hypersensitivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Hypersensitivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Physical Examination
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - diet therapy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Skin Tests
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The 209 mothers to be, enrolled in a randomized, prospective, allergy-prevention study from allergy-prone families, totally abstained from cow's milk and egg from gestational week 28 to delivery. This article presents the development of allergic disease at 5 years of age in their children, compared with the development of allergic disease in the children of the control mothers who took normal food throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of allergic disease could be evaluated in 198 children (95%). Allergic disease was monitored with questionnaires, skin prick testing, serum-IgE determinations, and physical examination. Eczema, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma was equally common in the groups. Persistent food intolerance to egg was significantly more common in children of the mothers receiving the diet. This long-term follow-up confirms our previous findings that maternal elimination diet during late pregnancy does not prevent the development of allergic disease in the genetically predisposed child.
PubMed ID
1545092 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alternative splicing of interleukin-6 mRNA in mice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63300
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2004 Jul;138(1):73-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
O P Yatsenko
M L Filipenko
E A Khrapov
E N Voronina
S V Sennikov
V A Kozlov
Author Affiliation
Laboratory for Regulation of Immunopoiesis, Institute of Clinical Immunology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2004 Jul;138(1):73-6
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alternative Splicing
Amino Acid Sequence
Animals
Binding Sites
Crosses, Genetic
Erythrocytes - immunology
Exons
Female
Interleukin-6 - chemistry - genetics
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Inbred CBA
Molecular Sequence Data
Placenta - metabolism
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Protein Biosynthesis
Protein Isoforms - chemistry
Protein Structure, Secondary
RNA, Messenger - metabolism
Sequence Deletion
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Sheep
Spleen - metabolism
Abstract
Expression of mRNA for interleukin-6, interleukin-6Delta3, and interleukin-6Delta5 was detected in placental tissue (second and third trimesters of pregnancy) and spleen of mice immunized with sheep erythrocytes in high dose. We hypothesize that translation of mRNA yields proteins capable of binding to individual subunits of the interleukin-6 receptor and possessing effector functions.
PubMed ID
15514729 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anaemia in the first but not in the second or third trimester is a risk factor for low birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185239
Source
Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;22(3):271-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Henna Hämäläinen
Katja Hakkarainen
Seppo Heinonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;22(3):271-5
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anemia - blood - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hemoglobins - analysis
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Pregnancy - blood
Pregnancy Complications
Pregnancy outcome
Pregnancy Trimester, First - blood
Pregnancy Trimester, Second - blood
Pregnancy Trimester, Third - blood
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
To assess pregnancy outcome in women with anaemia during pregnancy.
The study design involved a retrospective chart review of all women registering for prenatal care in the area of Kuopio University Hospital between 1990 and 2000. A haemoglobin concentration below 100g/l was used as a cutoff for anaemia and affected women (N=597) were stratified by the trimester at which anaemia was diagnosed. Multiple regression analysis was used to compare obstetric outcomes in the study groups and in non-anaemic women (N=22,202).
The frequency of anaemia was 2.6%, with 0.3% occurring in the first trimester. After controlling for confounding factors, anaemia detected in the first trimester was associated with low-birth-weight infants (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.35-7.28) whereas the mid- and third-trimester anaemia groups showed no significantly different outcomes when compared with the non-anaemic women. First trimester anaemia was not significantly associated with small birth weight for gestational age (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.41-2.17) or with premature delivery
PubMed ID
12765667 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anal incontinence and Quality of Life in late pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103050
Source
BJOG. 2014 Jul;121(8):978-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
H H Johannessen
S. Mørkved
A. Stordahl
L. Sandvik
A. Wibe
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiotherapy, Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
BJOG. 2014 Jul;121(8):978-87
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Delivery, Obstetric
Depression - epidemiology
Fecal Incontinence - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Female
Flatulence - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prevalence
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Self Concept
Abstract
To evaluate the association between different types of anal incontinence (AI) and Quality of Life (QoL) in late pregnancy.
Cross-sectional study.
Two maternity units in Norway 2009-2010.
Primiparae aged 18 or over.
Participants answered questions about AI during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy on the St. Mark's score and impact of QoL in the Fecal Incontinence QoL score. Socioeconomic data were obtained from hospital records.
Self-reported AI and impact on QoL.
1571 primiparae responded; 573 (37%) had experienced AI during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. One third of the incontinent women reported reduced QoL in the domain 'Coping'. 'Women experiencing urgency alone reported markedly better QoL compared to any other AI symptoms. AI appeared to have the strongest impact on the domains 'Coping' and 'Embarrassment'. Depression was only associated with experiencing the combination of all three symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 13; 95%confidence interval (CI) 3.2-51]. Experiencing flatus alone weekly or more was associated with the highest impact on 'Embarrassment' (OR 20; 95%CI 6.4-61) compared with all other symptoms or combination of AI symptoms, except the combination of all three AI symptoms.
Between 3 and 10% of the primiparae in this material experienced AI to such a extent that it affected QoL. The greatest impact was seen in the QoL domain 'Coping'. These findings highlight the importance of an increased awareness of AI in late pregnancy among health professionals and the need to implement routine discussions about AI with expectant and new mothers.
PubMed ID
24589074 View in PubMed
Less detail

225 records – page 1 of 23.