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Antibodies raised in animals against the Streptococcus agalactiae proteins c alpha and R4 and normal human serum antibodies target distinct epitopes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9738
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2003 May;52(Pt 5):379-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
Sylvester R Moyo
Johan A Maeland
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe Medical School, PO Box A178, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Source
J Med Microbiol. 2003 May;52(Pt 5):379-83
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - biosynthesis - blood - immunology
Antibodies, Monoclonal - immunology
Antibody Specificity
Antigens, Bacterial - immunology
Bacterial Proteins - immunology
Blotting, Western
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Epitopes - immunology
Female
Heat
Humans
Immune Sera - immunology
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology
Protein Denaturation
Rabbits
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate - chemistry
Streptococcal Infections - immunology
Streptococcus agalactiae - immunology
Zimbabwe
Abstract
The targets for normal human serum antibodies that react with proteins c(alpha) and R4 isolated from group B streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) have been studied and compared with the targets for murine monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against these proteins. The proteins were extracted by trypsin digestion and purified by precipitations and gel filtration and testing was based on enzyme immunoassays. The immune antibodies showed specificity for the corresponding protein, targeted that protein in Western blotting and recognized their targets after heat treatment (100 degrees C) of the proteins. Human antibodies in a commercial gammaglobulin preparation targeted a site(s) common to c(alpha) and R4. This target failed to bind the antibodies in Western blotting and was destroyed by heating. c(alpha)- and R4-reactive antibodies in sera from healthy pregnant women recognized the common, heat-labile determinant(s), but contained little or no antibodies against the heat-stable c(alpha)- or R4-specific determinants. These results are consistent with the notions that (i) the normal human antibodies and the immunization-induced animal antibodies targeted different sites on the c(alpha) and R4 proteins and that (ii) the natural human antibodies targeted conformational epitopes and the immune antibodies targeted linear epitopes. These findings are important for further clarification of GBS immunology and immunoprotection in humans.
PubMed ID
12721312 View in PubMed
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Anti-HIV screening of pregnant women in south-eastern Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8550
Source
NIPH Ann. 1988 Dec;11(2):53-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1988
Author
P. Jenum
Author Affiliation
Department of Virology, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo.
Source
NIPH Ann. 1988 Dec;11(2):53-8
Date
Dec-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - immunology
Female
HIV Antibodies - analysis
Humans
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology
Abstract
Routine anti-HIV screening of 36,053 sera from pregnant women in South-Eastern Norway yielded four (0.011%) true positive individuals. Three of these were known to be HIV-infected before pregnancy. In addition 23 women (0.064%) gave false positive results. Fifty (0.14%) women actively refused anti-HIV test. Anonymous testing of the sera from these women probably yielded one single true anti-HIV positive (2%). The prevalence of HIV-infection among pregnant Norwegian women is very low. Nevertheless, this screening programme could be instrumental in the future for the indirect monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of HIV-infection among the sexually active section of the population. False positive results were rare and caused no real diagnostic problem.
PubMed ID
3247064 View in PubMed
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and rubella virus infection during pregnancy. A study of CMV and rubella virus antibodies in 2014 pregnant women and follow-up studies of infants at risk for intrauterine CMV infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39987
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1984;63(5):431-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
1984
Author
G. Haukenes
P H Finne
E. Bertnes
I. Orstavik
E. Tjøtta
B. Haneberg
P. Aarseth
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1984;63(5):431-5
Date
1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Viral - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cytomegalovirus Infections - congenital - immunology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Rubella - congenital - immunology
Abstract
Two blood samples, one in the first and one in the third trimester, were collected from 2014 pregnant women. Serological tests for CMV and rubella antibodies were performed in the paired samples. Seroconversion by the CF test for CMV antibodies was demonstrated in 15 women. However, seroconversion also by the IF test was found in only one of these. A rise in titer during pregnancy by the CF test was found in 16 woman. None of these specimens contained specific IgM. High CMV-CF antibody titer (greater than 128) in the first serum sample was found in 28 women, but none of the sera contained specific IgM. It is concluded that no single serological test can serve at present as a screening test for the diagnosis of CMV infection during pregnancy. In children thought to be at risk contracting congenital CMV infection, no case with CNS malfunction that could be attributed to a congenital CMV infection could be demonstrated at the age of 7-8 years. One case of seroconversion in the examination for rubella antibodies was found. The infant of this mother showed no clinical signs of rubella infection.
PubMed ID
6093424 View in PubMed
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Determination of varicella immunity by the indirect immunofluorescence test in urgent clinical situations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27901
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1976;8(2):65-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
M. Grandien
P. Appelgren
A. Espmark
K. Hanngren
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1976;8(2):65-9
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Viral - analysis
Chickenpox - immunology
Child
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Humans
Immunosuppression
Leukemia - immunology
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Abstract
Certain categories of patients run an increased medical risk when exposed to varicella. Newborns lacking maternal immunity, immunosuppressed leukemic children or children with other immunodeficient disorders may gain a decisive benefit by administration of e.g. interferon or of specific immunoglobulin against varicella. An indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method has been used to estimate varicella. An indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method has been used to estimate varicella immunity. Of 51 heavily exposed women denying earlier varicella, 39 were found to be immune by the test and none of those contracted varicella, whereas 9 out of the 12 non-immune women fell ill. 14/48 immunosuppressed children were found to be seropositive and none of these contracted varicella, whereas 13 mild or subclinical cases occurred among the 34 seronegative children. The same test revealed that 175/182 (96%) young adults in Sweden were immune. The indirect IF test is considered a rapid, simple and reliable method for estimating varicella immunity.
PubMed ID
775620 View in PubMed
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Effectiveness of the targeted hepatitis B vaccination program in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131066
Source
Am J Public Health. 2012 Feb;102(2):277-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Malene L Børresen
Anders Koch
Robert J Biggar
Karin Ladefoged
Mads Melbye
Jan Wohlfahrt
Tyra Grove Krause
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut (SSI), Copenhagen, Denmark. mlb@ssi.dk
Source
Am J Public Health. 2012 Feb;102(2):277-84
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Hepatitis B - prevention & control - transmission
Hepatitis B Antibodies - blood
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - blood
Hepatitis B Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Humans
Immunization Programs - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical - prevention & control
Mothers
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology
Program Evaluation - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
To evaluate the effectiveness of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program in Greenland, which targets children born to mothers who are positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), we determined vaccination coverage, levels of postvaccination antibodies, and frequency of breakthrough infections in at-risk children.
We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study with data from nationwide registries. We identified all children born to HBsAg-positive mothers from 1992 to 2007 and collected data on their HBV vaccination status. In 2008 to 2010, we tested the children for HBV core antibody, HBsAg, and anti-HBsAg antibody (HBsAb).
Of 4050 pregnant women, 3.2% were HBsAg positive. Of 207 children born to these women, 20% received no vaccinations, and only 58% received at least 3 vaccinations. At follow-up, HBsAb levels in vaccinated children were much lower than expected, and 8 (6%) of 140 at-risk children had breakthrough infections, with 4 chronically infected (persistently HBsAg positive).
The prevention program targeting children at risk for HBV in Greenland is ineffective. HBV vaccination should be included in the universal childhood vaccination program, and postvaccination HBsAb levels should be monitored.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21940914 View in PubMed
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[Erythema infectiosum in pregnancy. A follow-up of children after 2 years]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35921
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Jan 30;114(3):308-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-1994
Author
A L Bruu
L B Flugsrud
Author Affiliation
Avdeling for virologi, Statens Institutt for Folkehelse, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Jan 30;114(3):308-10
Date
Jan-30-1994
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child Development
Child, Preschool
English Abstract
Erythema Infectiosum - complications - immunology - microbiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Growth
Humans
Immunoglobulin M - analysis
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology - microbiology
Pregnancy outcome
Abstract
During an epidemic of erythema infectiosum in Norway 1984-86, infection with human parvovirus B19 was diagnosed in 22 pregnant women by detection of specific IgM antibodies. Information about the outcome of pregnancy was obtained in 19 cases. 17 women delivered live babies. In two cases, spontaneous abortion occurred in week 16 of the pregnancy. In 11 cases, cord blood and serum samples were obtained from the children at an age of between six and 15 months. No specific IgM antibodies were found in cord blood. Clinical information on 16 children at two years of age revealed normal growth and development in 15 cases. One child was hyperactive and showed delayed language development. B19 IgG antibodies were detected in three children with normal growth and development. According to our findings, there was no association between infection with human parvovirus B19 in pregnancy and congenital abnormalities.
PubMed ID
8191425 View in PubMed
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[Examination of the bactericidal effect of amniotic fluid]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature66866
Source
Pediatr Akus Ginekol. 1967 Jan-Feb;1:57-8
Publication Type
Article

Experimental infection of reindeer with cervid herpesvirus 2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98817
Source
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Dec;16(12):1758-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Carlos G das Neves
Torill Mørk
Jacques Godfroid
Karen K Sørensen
Eva Breines
Ellinor Hareide
Julien Thiry
Espen Rimstad
Etienne Thiry
Morten Tryland
Author Affiliation
Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Stakkevollveien 23, NO-9010 Tromsø, Norway. carlos.neves@veths.no
Source
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Dec;16(12):1758-65
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibodies, Neutralizing - blood
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Female
Fetus - immunology - virology
Herpesviridae Infections - immunology - veterinary - virology
Lung - immunology - pathology - virology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology - veterinary - virology
Reindeer - immunology - virology
Uterus - immunology - pathology - virology
Vagina - immunology - virology
Varicellovirus - immunology
Virus Shedding - immunology
Abstract
Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) has been isolated from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), and serological data indicate that in reindeer this virus is endemic in Fennoscandia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. CvHV2 has been described as a cause of subclinical genital infections in reindeer, but little information on primary infections exists. In this study, six seronegative and presumably pregnant reindeer were allocated to one of two groups. Two animals were inoculated with CvHV2 intratracheally, and two animals intravaginally, with one control animal in each group receiving sterile water. Mild hyperthermia and serous discharges from the vagina and nose were observed. No abortions were recorded, but one calf died shortly after birth. Inoculated animals seroconverted and had neutralizing antibodies after days 7 to 10 postinfection. CvHV2 was detected by PCR in nasal and vaginal swabs from animals in both groups but could be isolated only from nasal swabs in the respiratory group and from vaginal swabs in the genital group. CvHV2 was detected by PCR in various organs and tissues postmortem. In control animals, the virus could not be isolated in spite of PCR-positive nasal and vaginal swab samples and some degree of positive immunostaining. One of the animals that were inoculated intratracheally developed a hemorrhagic, necrotizing bronchopneumonia, which was CvHV2 positive by PCR and immunohistochemistry. We conclude that CvHV2 can cause systemic infection, that both genital and respiratory inoculations can lead to virus shedding, and that the virus can infect the fetus in utero.
PubMed ID
19846680 View in PubMed
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Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275366
Source
Euro Surveill. 2016;21(7):pii=30136
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Asja Kunoee
Jens Nielsen
Susan Cowan
Source
Euro Surveill. 2016;21(7):pii=30136
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hepatitis B - diagnosis - prevention & control - transmission
Hepatitis B Antibodies - blood
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - blood
Hepatitis B Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Hepatitis B virus - genetics
Humans
Immunization Programs - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical - prevention & control
Mass Screening
Mothers
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology - virology
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Vaccination - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.
PubMed ID
26923681 View in PubMed
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Herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies in pregnant women: the impact of the stage of pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63850
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Dec;125(3):685-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
A. Eskild
S. Jeansson
J A Hagen
P A Jenum
A. Skrondal
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health Sciences, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Dec;125(3):685-92
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Viral - analysis
Blood volume
Female
Herpes Genitalis - diagnosis - immunology
Herpesvirus 2, Human - immunology
Humans
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - immunology - virology
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
In this study the impact of pregnancy duration on the measured level of HSV-2 antibodies was assessed. The study population comprised 35,940 pregnant women in Norway, in 1992-4, followed during pregnancy. A random sample of 960 women was selected. A mean of 2.6 serum samples from each woman were analysed for HSV-2 specific IgG antibodies at different times in pregnancy. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated in logistic regression models taking all observations per women into account. Twenty-seven percent of the pregnant women had antibodies against HSV-2 in the first trimester. The adjusted odds ratio of being HSV-2 antibody positive decreased during the pregnancy and was 0.5 (0.2-0.9, 95% confidence interval) in the 40th as compared to the 10th week of pregnancy. About 50% of initially HSV-2 positive women did not have detecable antibodies by the end of the pregnancy. This may be explained by haemodilution during pregnancy. Our findings have diagnostic implications and should encourage further studies.
PubMed ID
11218218 View in PubMed
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30 records – page 1 of 3.