The human bocavirus (HBoV), a newly discovered parvovirus, is closely related to the bovine parvovirus and the canine minute virus, which are known to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Another human parvovirus, B19, can lead to fetal hydrops, miscarriage and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD).
To determine the prevalence of HBoV DNA in aborted fetuses and IUFDs. The HBoV serology of the mothers was also studied.
We retrospectively studied all available fetuses (N=535) autopsied during 7/1992-12/1995, and 1/2003-12/2005 in Helsinki, Finland. All available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded fetal tissues - placenta, heart and liver - of 120 miscarriages, 169 IUFDs, and 246 induced abortions were studied by quantitative PCR. We also measured the HBoV IgM and IgG antibodies in the corresponding maternal sera (N=462) mostly of the first trimester. The IgM-positive sera underwent HBoV PCR.
None of the fetal tissues harbored HBoV DNA. A total of 97% (448/462) of the mothers were positive for IgG antibodies to HBoV, while only 0.9% (4/462) exhibited HBoV-specific IgM antibodies without viremia or respiratory symptoms. One IgM-positive mother had an unexplained fetal loss.
We did not find HBoV DNA in any of the deceased fetuses. Almost all pregnant women were HBoV-IgG positive.
The potential preventability of serious helicobacter-associated diseases - especially gastric cancer - has evoked interest in eradicating this pathogen from the population. We assessed the efficacy of the pioneering screen and treat intervention project in Vammala by studying helicobacter seroprevalence in pregnant women representing the normal population. Consecutive maternity clinic samples from native Finnish females at five different localities in 1995 (n=701) and 2000 (n=772) were investigated for class IgG H. pylori antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (Pyloriset EIA-G III, Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland). In Vammala the change in helicobacter seroprevalence was -13%-units (between 1995 and 2000; p=0.0125, chi-square test) in > or =29-year-old females, +1.6%-units (difference statistically non-significant) in
We have previously reported an increase in schizophrenia diagnoses in a population exposed during the second trimester to the 1957 influenza epidemic. These basic findings together with a fair number of replications have been interpreted as supporting a neurodevelopmental contribution to the origins of schizophrenia. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that affective illness may also have a neurodevelopmental origin. We examined the hypothesis that exposure to an influenza epidemic during the second trimester would increase the risk for adult major affective disorder.
The subjects had been exposed as fetuses to the type A2/Singapore influenza epidemic in greater Helsinki, Finland. Control subjects were born in the 6 years before the epidemic.
We found a significant (P .05) were similar. The second-trimester effect remained when we estimated population-based rates (2.1 vs 0.6 per 1000) (P .05) elevation was observed for the bipolar forms of major affective disorder.
These data are consistent with the hypothesis concerning the possible neurodevelopmental contribution to the origins of some forms of major affective disorder, especially unipolar depressive disorder. These encouraging findings, if replicated, may suggest that some mental disorders may stem, in part, from a disturbance in the development of the fetal brain during the second trimester.
The main epidemiological values characterizing rubella in Moscow were calculated on the basis of a new mathematical model. Quantitative estimates of the intensity of infection in different age groups of the population were obtained. It has been established that the risk of infection in children is especially high in comparison with adult population. That is why 98% of the population aged 15 are immune. The probability of falling ill with rubella was determined for persons with different antibody levels. The cases of congenital rubella in Moscow are rare due to the low risk of infection in adults and to their immunity acquired in childhood. Consequently, there is no necessity for vaccination against rubella in Moscow at the present time, but it should be recommended to organize constant epidemiological surveillance of congenital rubella.
We performed an anonymous seroprevalence survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection through HIV antibody testing of blood samples from 22,512 women aged 15 to 44 years receiving prenatal care in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory from Mar. 15 to Sept. 30, 1989. Of the samples six were confirmed to be HIV positive; this yielded a crude overall seroprevalence rate of 2.7 per 10,000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 5.8). All of the positive samples were from women 20 to 29 years of age; four were from Vancouver, one was from Victoria, and one was from elsewhere. The highest seroprevalence rates were among women aged 15 to 29 years in Vancouver and Victoria (7.2 and 9.4 per 10,000 pregnant women respectively). Thus, 1 in 1300 pregnant women in that age group in the metropolitan areas of British Columbia was HIV positive. Application of seroprevalence rates to the total female population in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory revealed that as many as 401 women had HIV infection in 1989. Our estimates likely represent the minimum. As a subset of women of childbearing age pregnant women are likely at lowest risk of HIV infection, and so the true number of women 15 to 44 years of age with HIV infection is probably several times higher. Our study has provided a baseline assessment and will be repeated annually to analyse trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of human parvovirus B19 among pregnant women before and during an epidemic, to elucidate possible sociodemographic and medical risk factors during pregnancy and to estimate the association between parvovirus B19 infection and negative pregnancy outcome. DESIGN: Prospective study among pregnant women followed from their first antenatal visit before 24 full weeks of gestation until delivery. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, November 1992 to February 1994. METHODS: 3,596 pregnant women were invited to participate. The women were examined at first antenatal visit in the period from November 1992 to February 1994 and at delivery. The last delivery was in August 1994 and samples were thus collected before and during a large parvovirus B19 epidemic in Denmark January to September 1994. A blood sample for parvovirus B19 serology was taken at enrollment and from the umbilical cord at delivery. Three questionnaires were completed during 2nd and 3rd trimesters and a registration form at delivery. In total, 3,174 (87.6%) were enrolled and 79.5% completed the study. RESULTS: The prevalence of B19 IgG seropositivity at the first antenatal visit before 24 full weeks of gestation was 66% . The cumulative prevalence proportion of acute parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy among IgG negative women was found to be 10.3% (IgM seropositivity and/or IgG seroconversion). The IgG seroconversion incidence increased significantly from 1.0% to 13.5% among 932 seronegative pregnant women before and during the epidemic, respectively (P
A study of 105 patients with childhood malignant germ-cell tumors (MGCT) and 639 community controls was conducted utilizing a large epidemiologic database collected by the Childrens Cancer Group from 25 member institutions in the United States and Canada. This study was designed to explore the risk factors of this malignancy whose etiology remains poorly understood. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect exposure information, and data were analyzed using an unconditional logistic regression model with adjustment for relevant confounders. Consistent with the findings from studies of adult MGCT, gestational age was associated inversely with risk of MGCT, with a 70 to 75 percent reduction in risk for children born at term compared with those born pre-term. Parental, particularly maternal, self-reported exposure to chemicals or solvents (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-11.3) and OR = 2.2, CI = 1.1-4.7 for maternal and paternal exposure, respectively) and plastic or resin fumes (OR = 12.0, CI = 1.9-75.0 [maternal] and OR = 2.5, CI = 1.0-6.5 [paternal]) were associated with elevated risk of MGCT. New findings, not reported previously, include a positive relationship of MGCT risk with birthweight and prolonged breastfeeding, an inverse association between MGCT risk and number of cigarettes smoked by the mother during pregnancy, and a 3.1-fold increased risk (CI = 1.5-6.6) associated with maternal urinary infections during index pregnancy. Although these findings need confirmation from future studies, they suggest a potential influence of in utero exposure to maternal endogenous hormones, parental environmental exposures, and maternal diseases during pregnancy in the development of childhood MGCT.