Deficiency of folic acid increases the risk for neural tube defects among newborn children and megaloblastic anaemia in the mother. The aim of this study was to make a survey of how midwives working in maternity health care, family planning guidance, and specialist prenatal care in a Swedish county inform women of childbearing age about folic acid. The questionnaire study showed that 79% of the midwives informed the women about folic acid. Usually, the women received information first when they asked for it and midwifes were less prone to inform young women about folic acid. 87% of the midwives felt that they did not know enough about folic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Midwives play an important role in information about the need of folic acid intake for women in childbearing age. Changes in local routines, guidelines and further education of midwifes would subsequently provide information about the importance of folic acid to women in childbearing age.
Caries incidence was assessed in pregnant women in 1998, 2003 an 2008 showing the values to be stable. DMF was almost the same in 1998 and 2003, but in 2008 the rate of "F" (filled) element was significantly higher thus confirming growth in motivation for dental treatment after introduction of private dental practices.
The aim of this study was to provide a temporal-spatial reference of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) and examine whether endometriosis promotes APO in the same population. Among the 31?068 women who had a pregnancy between 1997 and 2008 in Eastern Townships of Canada, 6749 (21.7%) had APO. These APO increased significantly with maternal age and over time (r(2?)=?0.522, p?=?0.008); and were dominated by preterm birth (9.3%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (8.3%) including gestational hypertension (6.5%), low birth weight (6.3%), gestational diabetes (3.4%), pregnancy loss (2.2%) including spontaneous abortion (1.5%) and stillbirth (0.6%), intrauterine growth restriction (2.1%) and preeclampsia (1.8%). Among the 31?068 pregnancies, 784 (2.5%) had endometriosis and 183 (23.3%) had both endometriosis and APO. Endometriosis has been shown to increase the incidence of fetal loss (OR?=?2.03; 95% CI?=?1.42-2.90, p?
The objective of the study was to determine completeness of 24-hour urine collection in pregnancy.
This was a retrospective laboratory/chart review of 24-hour urine collections at British Columbia Women's Hospital. Completeness was assessed by 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion (UcreatV): expected according to maternal weight for single collections and between-measurement difference for serial collections.
For 198 randomly selected pregnant women with a hypertensive disorder (63% preeclampsia), 24-hour urine collections were frequently inaccurate (13-54%) on the basis of UcreatV of 97-220 micromol/kg per day (11.0-25.0 mg/kg per day) or 133-177 micromol/kg per day (15.1-20.1 mg/kg per day) of prepregnancy weight (respectively). Lean body weight resulted in more inaccurate collections (24-68%). The current weight was frequently unavailable (28%) and thus not used. For 161 women (81% proteinuric) with serial 24-hour urine levels, a median [interquartile range] of 11 [5-31] days apart, between-measurement difference in UcreatV was 14.4% [6.0-24.9]; 40 women (24.8%) had values 25% or greater, exceeding analytic and biologic variation.
Twenty-four hour urine collection is frequently inaccurate and not a precise measure of proteinuria or creatinine clearance.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate long term mortality among women who smoked during pregnancy and those who stopped smoking. DESIGN--A follow up of a geographically defined cohort from 1966 through to 1993. SUBJECTS--11,994 women in northern Finland expected to deliver in 1966, comprising 96% of all women giving birth in the area during that year. Smoking habits were recorded during pregnancy but not later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality by cause (571 deaths). RESULTS--The mortality ratio adjusted for age, place of residence, years of education and marital status was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 2.8) for the women who smoked during pregnancy and 1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) for those who stopped smoking before the second month of pregnancy, both compared with non-smokers. Among the smokers the relative mortality was higher for typical diseases related to tobacco intake, such as respiratory and oesophageal cancer and diseases of the cardiovascular and digestive organs and also for accidents and suicides. CONCLUSION--The risk of premature death seems to be higher in women who smoke during pregnancy than in other women who smoke. This may be explained either by the low proportion of those who stop later and the high proportion of heavy smokers or by other characteristics of these subjects that increase the risk.
BACKGROUND: The intention of this study was to increase the knowledge concerning the rehabilitation of women with drug problems after the birth of a child and to find out how the children developed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A follow-up study of 31 women, former drug and alcohol abusers and their children, 19 girls and 12 boys born in 1982-1983. The first survey took place when the children were 2-3 years of age, then when they were 7-9 and at last when they were 15-17. The biological mothers, foster or adoptive mothers, the children and their teachers were interviewed. RESULTS: The women got more support and control during the pregnancy than afterwards. Most of the mothers became single. Women with the shortest drug history, a good social network and a stable partner without drug problems kept the care of their children. By the first survey (1985), seven children had been placed in foster homes, in the second (1992) two further children had been taken away from their mothers, and in the third (1999) only one third of the children were living with their biological mothers. Most of the children did well at school and in their families, had friends and leisure activities despite still living by their mothers or in foster/adoption homes. None of the youngsters had been in conflict with the law or were drug abusers, but every second teenage girl needed psychological support. Children who had been stable by their drug-free biological mothers functioned best. INTERPRETATION: Mothers with drug problems do not get sufficient attention after the delivery and when the children grow up. A supporting family should be brought in contact with mother and child after the delivery. Under special circumstances pregnancy can be a positive turning point for women with drug problems.
A prevalence study of 9000 Swedish school children conducted in 1955 showed that nearly 4% had migraine. The prevalence of migraine was 1.4% at 7 years of age and 5.3% at 15 years of age. From the age of 11 there was a gradual increase of migraine headache and a predominance among girls. A subgroup of 73 children with pronounced migraine and an average onset of 6 years was followed during a period of 40 years. The results showed that 23% of the children were migraine-free before the age of 25, boys significantly more often than girls. However, around the age of 50, more than half of the migraine group still had migraine attacks. A recall bias was found in that a number of the subjects in their middle-life (41%) could not remember that they had had aura symptoms previously. Of those who had become parents, 52% have in their present or previous families had one child or more who had developed recurrent headache, probably of the migraine-type.