Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.
Data regarding the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption among pregnant women in the Russian Federation is lacking. As part of a longitudinal pregnancy outcome study being conducted in the Moscow Region of Russia, in the 5-month period from January through May 2005, pregnant women in four prenatal care facilities were screened for self-reported alcohol consumption in the month around the time of conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy. Among the 413 respondents, 347 (85.0%) reported some alcohol consumption during one of the two time periods, and 193 (51.9%) of these drinking women reported some alcohol use in the most recent month. Of particular concern was the pattern of drinking, with 75 (20.2%) of drinking women reporting at least one episode of five or more drinks around the time of conception, and 153 (41.1%) of drinking women reporting at least one episode of three or four drinks during that same time period. Furthermore, this same pattern of heavier episodic drinking was reported by 18 (4.8%) and 39 (10.5%) of drinking women, respectively, in the most recent month in pregnancy before the screening interview. These data indicate that pregnant women in these areas of the Moscow Region present an important opportunity for education and intervention for alcohol-related birth outcomes.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the overall effect of maternal fish intake during pregnancy on child development or examined whether the developmental benefits of maternal fish intake are greater in infants breastfed for a shorter duration. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study associations of maternal prenatal fish intake and breastfeeding duration with child developmental milestones. DESIGN: We studied 25 446 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a prospective population-based cohort study including pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002. Mothers reported child development by a standardized interview, which we used to generate developmental scores at ages 6 and 18 mo. We used multivariate cumulative ordinal logistic regression to evaluate the odds of higher developmental scores associated with maternal fish intake and breastfeeding, after adjustment for child age, sex, and growth; maternal size and pregnancy characteristics; and parental education and social status. RESULTS: Higher maternal fish intake and greater duration of breastfeeding were associated with higher child developmental scores at 18 mo [odds ratio: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.38) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of fish intake, and 1.28 (1.18, 1.38) for breastfeeding for > or =10 mo compared with breastfeeding for
This paper describes weight gain during pregnancy in Sweden in relation to guidelines from the United States. These guidelines take into consideration the fact that optimal weight gain during pregnancy is related to the woman's prepregnant weight in relation to her height. Almost 50 per cent of women delivering babies in Sweden during the year 2000 were obese or overweight. In the three populations studied, less than 50 per cent gained weight in accordance with the US guidelines, while more than 20 per cent gained less weight than recommended. The results indicate that, in Sweden, more attention should be paid to the body weight of women who bear children.
A high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as a factor in prolonged gestation in the population of the Faroe Islands. It is now suggested that isovaleric acid from pilot whales, a species frequently consumed in the Faroe Islands, may be the unusual dietary factor. Fatty acid data for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in blood lipids of Faroese and Norwegians is reviewed in terms of the type of fish eaten, apparently mostly lean white fish with DHA much greater than EPA. The popular lean fish, thus, probably provides too little EPA to produce a marked effect on human biochemistry.
The Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study is a longitudinal study of reproductive health. Here we analyzed body composition of normal-weight and obese Swedish women by three methods during each trimester of pregnancy. Cross-sectional and longitudinal fat mass estimates using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (Tanita MC-180MA-III) were compared with fat mass determined by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in pregnancy weeks 8-12, 24-26, and 35-37 in normal-weight women (n =?122, BMI?=?22.1?±?1.6 kg/m2) and obese women (n =?29, BMI?=?34.6?±?3.6 kg/m2). ADP results were calculated from pregnancy-adjusted fat-free mass densities. Mean fat mass by QMR and ADP were similar in obese women, although with wide limits of agreement. In normal-weight women, QMR overestimated mean fat mass in all trimesters, with systematic overestimation at low fat mass values in trimesters 1 and 3. In obese women, fat mass by BIA was grossly underestimated and imprecise in all trimesters, especially at higher values in trimester 2. In normal-weight women, fat mass by BIA was moderately lower than by ADP in trimester 1, similar in trimester 2, and moderately higher in trimester 3. QMR and ADP assessed fat mass changes similarly in obese women, whereas BIA overestimated fat mass changes in normal-weight women. Mean fat mass and fat mass changes by QMR and pregnancy-adjusted ADP were similar in pregnant obese women. Mean fat mass by QMR and fat mass changes by BIA were higher than corresponding values determined by pregnancy-adjusted ADP in normal-weight women.
Healthy human pregnancy is associated with changes in food intake, body fatness, energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, available knowledge is limited regarding the physiological basis of these changes. Published evidence suggests that so-called adipokines (i.e. leptin, adiponectin and resistin) have significant roles when such changes are established. We explored, throughout a complete pregnancy, relationships between total body fat (TBF), energy expenditure, insulin resistance (homeostasic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Such concentrations were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 8, 14, 20, 32 and 35, and 2 weeks postpartum in twenty-three healthy women. TBF, BMR (n 23) and HOMA-IR (n 17) were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum. TBF (%) was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.68-0.79, P
All pregnant women in Uppsala county in 1987 were questioned on three different occasions about smoking habits, socio-demographic factors and obstetric history. After delivery, information was collected regarding their children. Twenty percent of the mothers continued to smoke during pregnancy, while 8% stopped smoking. The mean birth weight of infants of smokers was 3378 g and of non-smokers 3589 g. The difference was significant (p
Maternal characteristics such as age, parity, smoking status, pre-pregnancy weight and pregnancy weight gain have changed in many industrialized countries in recent years. Many of these changes have not been adequately described at a population level. The purpose of this study was to describe recent trends in selected maternal characteristics in Nova Scotia.
Data from a population-based perinatal database were used to examine changes in maternal age, parity, smoking, pre-pregnancy weight, delivery weight and pregnancy weight gain among all deliveries between 1988 and 2001.
The proportion of deliveries to women > or = 35 years increased by 84% over the study period from 7.0% in 1988-1991 to 12.9% in 1998-2000, while deliveries to women > or = 40 years increased by more than 100%. The number of nulliparous women > or = 35 years also increased significantly. The overall prevalence of smoking decreased from 32.7% in 1988-1991 to 25.1% in 1998-2001, however the prevalence of smoking among women or = 90 kilograms (kg) increased by 165% from 4.1% in 1988-1991 to 10.7% in 1998-2001. The proportion of women with pregnancy weight gain of or =18 kg increased by 37% and 13%, respectively.
Dramatic changes have occurred in several important maternal characteristics and there is evidence of ongoing change. Continuation of these trends is likely to impact on future obstetric practice and perinatal health.
Erratum In: Can J Public Health. 2005 Jul-Aug;96(4):258