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Accident involvement among learner drivers--an analysis of the consequences of supervised practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184583
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2003 Sep;35(5):725-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Nils Petter Gregersen
Anders Nyberg
Hans-Yngve Berg
Author Affiliation
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden. gregersen@vti.se
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2003 Sep;35(5):725-30
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - classification - economics - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Automobile Driver Examination
Automobile Driving - education
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Humans
Practice (Psychology)
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
It is a well-known fact that experience is important for safe driving. Previously, this presented a problem since experience was mostly gained during the most dangerous period of driving-the first years with a licence. In many countries, this "experience paradox" has been addressed by providing increased opportunities to gain experience through supervised practice. One question, however, which still needs to be answered is what has been lost and what has been gained through supervised practice. Does this method lead to fewer accidents after licensing and/or has the number of accidents in driving practice increased? There were three aims in the study. The first was to calculate the size of the accident problem in terms of the number of accidents, health risk and accident risk during practising. The second aim was to evaluate the solution of the "experience paradox" that supervised practice suggests by calculating the costs in terms of accidents during driving practice and the benefits in terms of reduced accident involvement after obtaining a licence. The third aim was to analyse conflict types that occur during driving practice. National register data on licence holders and police-reported injury accidents and self-reported exposure were used. The results show that during the period 1994-2000, 444 driving practice injury accidents were registered, compared to 13657 accidents during the first 2 years with a licence. The health risk during the period after licensing was 33 times higher and the accident risk 10 times higher than the corresponding risk during practice. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the benefits in terms of accident reduction after licensing were 30 times higher than the costs in terms of driving practice accidents. It is recommended that measures to reduce such accidents should focus on better education of the lay instructor, but not on introducing measures to reduce the amount of lay-instructed practice.
PubMed ID
12850073 View in PubMed
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Attention and memory training in children with acquired brain injuries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30760
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2003 Aug;92(8):935-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
I. van't Hooft
K. Andersson
T. Sejersen
A. Bartfai
L. von Wendt
Author Affiliation
Neuropediatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. ingrid.vant.hooft@bup.sll.se
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2003 Aug;92(8):935-40
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention
Brain Injuries - rehabilitation
Child
Feasibility Studies
Female
Humans
Learning
Male
Memory Disorders - etiology - rehabilitation
Practice (Psychology)
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
AIM: To test the feasibility of the Amsterdam memory and attention training for children (Amat-c) in Swedish children with acquired brain damage. METHODS: Amat-c consists of structured exercises in specific attention and memory techniques. Three Swedish children aged 9-16 y with acquired brain injuries and related memory and attention deficits trained with the Amat-c method for half an hour a day in school or at home interactively with a teacher or parent for a period of 20 wk. RESULTS: All children and their coaches completed the training without interruption. The results showed an improvement in several neuropsychological tests of sustained and selective attention as well as in memory performance. Questionnaires filled in by parents and teachers indicate that, using the Amat-c method, the children learned strategies that improved their school achievement and self-image. CONCLUSIONS: The Amat-c is a valuable treatment option for improving cognitive efficiency in children with acquired brain injuries. The results indicate improved performance in several psychometric measurements. On the basis of these results, the second step will be to modify the complexity and duration of the method, as well as to integrate a reward system before further evaluating the efficacy in a larger controlled study.
PubMed ID
12948069 View in PubMed
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Clinical factors that predict cognitive function in patients with major depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139916
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;55(10):653-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Safa Elgamal
Susan Denburg
Michael Marriott
Glenda MacQueen
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. selgamal@healthy.uwaterloo.ca
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;55(10):653-61
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cognition
Demography
Depression - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy - psychology
Depressive Disorder, Major - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Memory Disorders - diagnosis - etiology
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests - statistics & numerical data
Patient Readmission
Practice (Psychology)
Predictive value of tests
Severity of Illness Index
Verbal Behavior
Abstract
To compare the performance of depressed patients to healthy control subjects on discrete cognitive domains derived from factor analysis and to examine the factors that may influence the performance of depressed patients on cognitive domains in a large sample.
We compared the cognitive performance of 149 patients with major depression to 104 healthy control subjects using multivariate ANCOVA. We used principal component factor analysis to group the cognitive variables into cognitive domains. Finally, we conducted regression analysis to examine the contribution of predictor factors to the cognitive domains that were impaired in the depressed group.
Verbal memory and speed of processing were impaired in depressed patients, compared with healthy control subjects. Patient IQ, duration of depressive illness, and number of hospitalizations significantly contributed to the performance of patients on verbal memory and speed of processing. The severity of mood symptoms did not correlate with performance on any cognitive domain.
Understanding the factors that predict cognitive performance of patients with depression may provide an insight into the processes by which depression leads to cognitive dysfunction. Our study showed that premorbid IQ and factors related to burden of illness are strong independent predictors of cognitive dysfunction in patients with major depression.
PubMed ID
20964944 View in PubMed
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Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251143
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1976 Apr 17;114(8):697-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-17-1976
Author
J J Theoret
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1976 Apr 17;114(8):697-9
Date
Apr-17-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communication
Disasters
Emergency Medical Services - manpower
Emergency Service, Hospital
First Aid
Health planning
Humans
Ontario
Organization and Administration
Practice (Psychology)
Relief Work
Transportation of Patients
Triage - manpower
Volunteers
Abstract
A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation - particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected.
Notes
Cites: Hospitals. 1970 Mar 1;44(5):40-2 passim5414575
Cites: Am J Nurs. 1972 Jun;72(6):1072-64481769
PubMed ID
1260617 View in PubMed
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Harmonization of European laboratory response networks by implementing CWA 15793: use of a gap analysis and an "insider" exercise as tools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106353
Source
Biosecur Bioterror. 2013 Sep;11 Suppl 1:S36-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Bo Sundqvist
Ulrika Allard Bengtsson
Henk J Wisselink
Ben P H Peeters
Bart van Rotterdam
Evelien Kampert
Sándor Bereczky
N G Johan Olsson
Asa Szekely Björndal
Sylvie Zini
Sébastien Allix
Rickard Knutsson
Source
Biosecur Bioterror. 2013 Sep;11 Suppl 1:S36-44
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Diseases - prevention & control
Animals
Bioterrorism - prevention & control
Civil Defense - organization & administration
France
Guideline Adherence
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Laboratories - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - standards
Netherlands
Practice (Psychology)
Quality Improvement
Security Measures - organization & administration - standards
Sweden
Abstract
Laboratory response networks (LRNs) have been established for security reasons in several countries including the Netherlands, France, and Sweden. LRNs function in these countries as a preparedness measure for a coordinated diagnostic response capability in case of a bioterrorism incident or other biocrimes. Generally, these LRNs are organized on a national level. The EU project AniBioThreat has identified the need for an integrated European LRN to strengthen preparedness against animal bioterrorism. One task of the AniBioThreat project is to suggest a plan to implement laboratory biorisk management CWA 15793:2011 (CWA 15793), a management system built on the principle of continual improvement through the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. The implementation of CWA 15793 can facilitate trust and credibility in a future European LRN and is an assurance that the work done at the laboratories is performed in a structured way with continuous improvements. As a first step, a gap analysis was performed to establish the current compliance status of biosafety and laboratory biosecurity management with CWA 15793 in 5 AniBioThreat partner institutes in France (ANSES), the Netherlands (CVI and RIVM), and Sweden (SMI and SVA). All 5 partners are national and/or international laboratory reference institutes in the field of public or animal health and possess high-containment laboratories and animal facilities. The gap analysis showed that the participating institutes already have robust biorisk management programs in place, but several gaps were identified that need to be addressed. Despite differences between the participating institutes in their compliance status, these variations are not significant. Biorisk management exercises also have been identified as a useful tool to control compliance status and thereby implementation of CWA 15793. An exercise concerning an insider threat and loss of a biological agent was performed at SVA in the AniBioThreat project to evaluate implementation of the contingency plans and as an activity in the implementation process of CWA 15793. The outcome of the exercise was perceived as very useful, and improvements to enhance biorisk preparedness were identified. Gap analyses and exercises are important, useful activities to facilitate implementation of CWA 15793. The PDCA cycle will enforce a structured way to work, with continual improvements concerning biorisk management activities. Based on the activities in the AniBioThreat project, the following requirements are suggested to promote implementation: support from the top management of the organizations, knowledge about CWA 15793, a compliance audit checklist and gap analysis, training and exercises, networking in LRNs and other networks, and interinstitutional audits. Implementation of CWA 15793 at each institute would strengthen the European animal bioterrorism response capabilities by establishing a well-prepared LRN.
PubMed ID
23971820 View in PubMed
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Heart rate responses to real and simulated BA Hawk MK 51 flight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208099
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1997 Jul;68(7):601-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1997
Author
H. Ylönen
H. Lyytinen
T. Leino
J. Leppäluoto
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
University of Jyväskylä, Department of Psychology, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1997 Jul;68(7):601-5
Date
Jul-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Aircraft
Analysis of Variance
Cognition - physiology
Computer simulation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Finland
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Military Personnel - psychology
Practice (Psychology)
Psychomotor Performance - physiology
Psychophysiology
Stress, Psychological - physiopathology
Workload - psychology
Abstract
The effects of psychological workload on inflight heart rate were studied in five experienced (flight instructors) and five less experienced (cadets) military pilots of the Finnish Air Force (FAF).
The subjects performed the same flight mission twice; first with the BA Hawk MK 51 simulator with minimal G-forces and after that with the BA Hawk MK 51 jet trainer with Gz-forces below +2. The mission included: a) 2 min rest after seating; b) take-off; c) ILS approach in the minimum weather conditions (initial, intermediate and final approach); d) landing tour (visual approach); and e) landing. The heart rates were continuously measured using a small portable recorder developed at the University of Jyv?skyl?, Finland. The R-R intervals were stored and analyzed with an accuracy of 1 ms. The different phases of each flight were marked in the data by using codes given beforehand for each critical event.
The take-off resulted in a significant increase in the heart rate from the resting levels both in the cadets and the flight instructors in both planes. In the simulator the heart rate decreased during the initial approach and slightly increased after it during the intermediate approach. Thereafter the heart rate decreased during the landing tour which seemed to be the least psychologically demanding phase of the simulated flight. The heart rate increased again during the landing but did not exceed the heart rates measured during the take-off and the ILS-approach. There were no statistical differences between the groups. In the jet trainer no decrease in the heart rate could be observed immediately after the take-off, unlike in the case of the simulated flight. The inflight heart rate increased during the final approach, decreased during the landing tour and finally increased during the landing. According to the heart rate analysis the final approach was the most loaded phase of the real flight. The changes towards the phases of final approach and landing were greater among the flight instructors.
There were no statistically significant differences between the mean heart rates during the real and the simulated flight. It is suggested that the heart rate changes for most reflected the changes in cognitive workload.
PubMed ID
9215465 View in PubMed
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How much practice is enough? Using learning curves to assess the deliberate practice of radiograph interpretation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135065
Source
Acad Med. 2011 Jun;86(6):731-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Martin Pusic
Martin Pecaric
Kathy Boutis
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Source
Acad Med. 2011 Jun;86(6):731-6
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ankle Injuries - radiography
Child
Computer-Assisted Instruction
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Measurement - methods
Fractures, Bone - radiography
Humans
Internship and Residency
New York City
Ontario
Pediatrics - education
Practice (Psychology)
Prospective Studies
Radiology - education
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
To demonstrate how learning curves can describe proficiency improvements associated with deliberate practice of radiograph interpretation.
This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of pediatric residents in two tertiary care programs. A 234-item digital case bank of pediatric ankle radiographs was developed. The authors gave participants a brief clinical summary of each case and asked them to consider three radiograph views of the ankle. Participants classified each case as either normal or abnormal and, if applicable, specified the location of the abnormality. They received immediate feedback and a radiologist's dictated report. The authors reviewed longitudinal learning curves, which were generated based on calculated test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity).
Eighteen participants (56.3% of those eligible) completed all 234 cases. The form of the participants' learning curves was similar across all test characteristics. The curves showed a period of "noise" until the participants completed an average of 20 cases. The slope of the learning curve was maximal from 21 to 50 cases during which cumulative sensitivity (95% CI) increased from 0.50 (0.45, 0.57) to 0.54 (0.47, 0.58). Then, the curves reached an inflection point after which learning slowed but did not stop even after 234 cases. The final cumulative sensitivity was 0.60 (0.54, 0.63). Applying a reference criterion, the authors classified learners into formative categories.
Learning curves describing deliberate practice of radiograph interpretation allow medical educators to define at which point(s) practice is most efficient and how much practice is required to achieve a defined level of mastery.
PubMed ID
21512374 View in PubMed
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Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company-A process evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292460
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0191760
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Eva L Bergsten
Svend Erik Mathiassen
Johan Larsson
Lydia Kwak
Author Affiliation
Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0191760
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aviation
Education, Nonprofessional
Ergonomics - instrumentation
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Occupational Injuries - prevention & control
Peer Group
Personnel Downsizing
Practice (Psychology)
Qualitative Research
Self Efficacy
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Work Engagement
Abstract
To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling.
Feasibility related to the process items recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered (training time and content); dose received (participants' engagement); satisfaction with training; intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods.
Implementation proved successful regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (p
Notes
Cites: Ergonomics. 2005 Apr 15;48(5):559-80 PMID 16040527
Cites: Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:798042 PMID 26558282
Cites: J Occup Environ Med. 2013 Dec;55(12):1409-20 PMID 24270291
Cites: Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009 May 20;6:26 PMID 19457246
Cites: J Occup Rehabil. 2010 Jun;20(2):127-62 PMID 19885644
Cites: Appl Ergon. 2009 Jan;40(1):115-23 PMID 18314091
Cites: J Appl Psychol. 2005 Jul;90(4):692-709 PMID 16060787
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2005 Mar;62(3):205-10 PMID 15723887
Cites: BMC Health Serv Res. 2007 Jun 14;7:85 PMID 17570838
Cites: Work. 2009;34(1):117-21 PMID 19923682
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2016 Oct;60(8):977-90 PMID 27417186
Cites: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD005958 PMID 21678349
Cites: Am J Health Promot. 2007 Mar-Apr;21(4):248-54 PMID 17375490
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011 Sep;37(5):363-75 PMID 21403982
Cites: Implement Sci. 2013 Dec 01;8:139 PMID 24289295
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2014 Feb 08;14:135 PMID 24507447
Cites: Ergonomics. 2010 Oct;53(10):1153-66 PMID 20865600
Cites: Ergonomics. 2012;55(11):1362-72 PMID 22928550
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2013 Dec 17;13:1190 PMID 24341605
PubMed ID
29513671 View in PubMed
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Increased risk of atrial fibrillation among elderly Norwegian men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270075
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Aug;24(4):e238-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
M. Myrstad
M-L Løchen
S. Graff-Iversen
A K Gulsvik
D S Thelle
H. Stigum
A H Ranhoff
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Aug;24(4):e238-44
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Exertion - physiology
Practice (Psychology)
Risk factors
Running - physiology
Skiing - physiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence increases with increasing age. In middle-aged men, endurance sport practice is associated with increased risk of AF but there are few studies among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of long-term endurance sport practice as a risk factor for AF in elderly men. A cross-sectional study compared 509 men aged 65-90 years who participated in a long-distance cross-country ski race with 1768 men aged 65-87 years from the general population. Long-term endurance sport practice was the main exposure. Self-reported AF and covariates were assessed by questionnaires. Risk differences (RDs) for AF were estimated by using a linear regression model. After multivariable adjustment, a history of endurance sport practice gave an added risk for AF of 6.0 percent points (pp) (95% confidence interval 0.8-11.1). Light and moderate leisure-time physical activity during the last 12 months reduced the risk with 3.7 and 4.3 pp, respectively, but the RDs were not statistically significant. This study suggests that elderly men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice have an increased risk of AF compared with elderly men in the general population.
PubMed ID
24256074 View in PubMed
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The influence of practice schedules in the learning of a complex bone-plating surgical task.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173298
Source
Am J Surg. 2005 Sep;190(3):359-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
Adam Dubrowski
David Backstein
Read Abughaduma
Dan Leidl
Heather Carnahan
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. adam.dubrowski@utoronto.ca
Source
Am J Surg. 2005 Sep;190(3):359-63
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Bone Plates
Education, Medical, Undergraduate
Humans
Motor Skills
Ontario
Orthopedic Procedures - education
Practice (Psychology)
Teaching - methods
Abstract
Practicing surgical tasks on bench models can be arranged in 3 ways: as the entire task, or as individual skills practiced separately in blocked or random order. The issue of the optimal practice schedule for the acquisition of surgical tasks is critical for enhancing training programs.
An orthopedic bone-plating task was practiced as a whole, or in parts in either a random or a blocked order. Learning was assessed on global ratings, checklists, and final product analysis before, immediately after, and an hour after practice.
Checklists, and final product analysis, but not the global ratings showed that practicing the entire task resulted in the most learning, followed by the random practice. Practice of the skills in a blocked order yielded the least amount of learning.
It is recommended that surgical tasks composed of several discrete skills should be practiced as a whole. However, if part practice is necessary, these skills should be arranged in random order to optimize learning.
PubMed ID
16105518 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.