Modern medical research is dependent on many political considerations such as the funding sources and the personal belief systems of those in control of setting the directions for the use of those funds. The author provides information on the role of women in that decision-making structure. She details several areas of research which have a direct impact on the health of women but in which women have little or no role in setting policy. She concludes that if the situation is to be changed women must play a much more active role in both determining research policy and in carrying out the research itself.
This study identifies and describes questionnaires that measure empowerment in working life. Theoretical bases and empirical examination of the questionnaires are also reported. Nine questionnaires emerged from a database search including AMED, CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE and PSYCINFO. The main target groups were employees in general. Most authors share the same theoretical basis. Most of the questionnaires focus on intra-individual issues, while a smaller number deal with the interaction between individual and organization. Control and competence are frequently used dimensions. Cronbach's alpha for complete questionnaires ranged between 0.62 and 0.96. No comparisons with outcome of health were reported. Spreitzer's questionnaire has undergone the most comprehensive investigation. Research is required to achieve better understanding of the interplay between conditions at work and empowerment and health.
The psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of Spreitzer's (1995a) empowerment scale were assessed. Three parallel assessments were made of data from 1,107 female registered nurses, 758 female assistant nurses, and 107 male registered and assistant nurses. The analyses indicated that the psychometric properties of the scale can be considered satisfactory. Suggestions are made regarding future research in the fields of psychometrics and work- and health-psychology.
Previous studies indicate that new graduate nurses' first year of work is both stressful and difficult. The turnover rate of this group is particularly high. There is a need to increase our understanding of why new graduate nurses intend to leave their current employer.
The purpose of this study is to examine what proportion of new graduate nurses intends to leave their current position and to examine the relationship between transition programs, empowerment, work environment and intent to leave.
Survey data was collected with new graduate nurses over a 5-year period, beginning in 2004 and ending in 2008. A total of 348 new graduate nurses were surveyed in eastern Canada.
The results showed that 49.6% of the new graduate nurses did not intend to leave their current employer, whereas 4.9% were definitely planning to leave and 45.5% expressed different levels of uncertainty. Regression analysis indicated that a component of the work environment, foundations for quality nursing care, and a component of psychological empowerment, goal internalization explained, 24% of the variance of intent to leave.
This study provides a more comprehensive understanding of factors that influence intent to leave. It also supports the importance of a good working environment for the retention of new graduate nurses.
Police and pastoral power: governmentality and correctional forensic psychiatric nursing Since 1978, the federal inmates of Canada have had access to a full range of psychiatric care within the penitentiary system. Several psychiatric units are now integrated into the correctional services of Canada. This paper presents the results of a grounded theory doctoral study undertaken in a multilevel secured psychiatric ward within the Canadian federal penitentiary system. The author describes and discusses the results of qualitative data that emerged from his fieldwork. The concept of governmentality, as defined by the late French philosopher Michel Foucault, constitutes one of the major theoretical tools that were helpful in analyzing these data. Police and pastoral power, two dimensions of the security apparatus of governmentality, were found to be useful in understanding and characterizing nursing practice caught between the penal and the psychiatric dispositifs. A Foucauldian perspective allows one to understand the manner in which forensic psychiatric nursing is involved in the governance of mentally ill inmates through three forms of power - sovereign, disciplinary and pastoral - which have posited nursing practice as a strategic tool of the correctional services. This research consists of a study of nursing practice in an extreme setting that deserves a radical analysis.