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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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1918 pandemic morbidity: The first wave hits the poor, the second wave hits the rich.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299653
Source
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 05; 12(3):307-313
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Svenn-Erik Mamelund
Author Affiliation
Work Research Institute, OsloMet-Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 05; 12(3):307-313
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Female
History, 20th Century
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 - economics - statistics & numerical data
Influenza, Human - epidemiology
Male
Morbidity
Norway - epidemiology
Pandemics - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Social Class
Vaccination
Abstract
Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue, the recent literature has hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral."
To study the associations between influenza-like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic.
Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918. Here, an overlooked survey from Bergen, Norway (n = 10 633), is used to study differences in probabilities of ILI and ILI probability ratios by apartment size as a measure of SES and gender for 3 waves including the waves prior to and after the "fall wave."
Socioeconomic status was negatively associated with ILI in the first wave, but positively associated in the second wave. At all SES levels, men had the highest ILI in the summer, while women had the highest ILI in the fall. There were no SES or gender differences in ILI in the winter of 1919.
For the first time, it is documented a crossover in the role of socioeconomic status in 1918 pandemic morbidity. The poor came down with influenza first, while the rich with less exposure in the first wave had the highest morbidity in the second wave. The study suggests that the socioeconomically disadvantaged should be prioritized if vaccines are of limited availability in a future pandemic.
PubMed ID
29356350 View in PubMed
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Absolute rather than relative income is a better socioeconomic predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Swedish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292715
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-04-2017
Author
Sten Axelsson Fisk
Juan Merlo
Author Affiliation
Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, CRC, Jan Waldeströms gata, 35, S-205 02, Malmö, Sweden. sten.axelsson_fisk@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2017 05 04; 16(1):70
Date
05-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Aged
Female
Humans
Incidence
Income - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - economics - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.
We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD.
Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD.
Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28472960 View in PubMed
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Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107728
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Max Petzold
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Greenlandic Branch, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Male
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level.
To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use.
The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home.
Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.06) (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984271 View in PubMed
Documents
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Association between fruit and vegetable consumption in mothers and children in low-income, urban neighborhoods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166274
Source
Health Educ Behav. 2007 Oct;34(5):723-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Marie-Pierre Sylvestre
Jennifer O'Loughlin
Katherine Gray-Donald
James Hanley
Gilles Paradis
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. marie-pierre.sylvestre@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Health Educ Behav. 2007 Oct;34(5):723-34
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Continental Population Groups
Diet
Female
Fruit
Humans
Male
Mothers
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Vegetables
Abstract
To understand factors influencing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children, the authors studied the association between F&V consumption in mothers and children in a sample of 1,106 boys and girls in Grades 4-6 in 24 elementary schools in low-income, multiethnic neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Approximately 10% of girls and 19% of boys reported not having eaten any vegetables in the week prior to questionnaire administration; 53% of girls and 63% of boys did not consume whole fruits daily. Each unit increase in F&V consumption in mothers was associated with a 10% to 20% increase in F&V consumption in children. Interventions to improve F&V consumption should aim to improve awareness among parents of the importance of fruits and vegetables and of the impact of their own behavior on their children's F&V consumption.
PubMed ID
17142242 View in PubMed
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Association of comorbid mood disorders and chronic illness with disability and quality of life in Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156181
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2008;28(4):148-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
T. Gadalla
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Work at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A1. tahany.gadalla@utoronto.ca
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2008;28(4):148-54
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Child
Chronic Disease - epidemiology - psychology
Disabled Persons - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family Relations
Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Fibromyalgia - epidemiology - psychology
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Intestinal Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Ontario
Peptic Ulcer - epidemiology - psychology
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Quality of Life
Sex Factors
Single Person - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Stomach Ulcer - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Mood disorders are more prevalent in individuals with chronic physical illness compared to individuals with no such illness. These disorders amplify the disability associated with the physical condition and adversely affect its course, thus contributing to occupational impairment, disruption in interpersonal and family relationships, poor health and suicide. This study used data collected in the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 3.1 (2005) to examine factors associated with comorbid mood disorders and to assess their association with the quality of life of individuals living in Ontario. Results indicate that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, bowel disorder or stomach or intestinal ulcers had the highest rates of mood disorders. The odds of having a comorbid mood disorder were higher among women, the single, those living in poverty, the Canadian born and those between 30 and 69 years of age. The presence of comorbid mood disorders was significantly associated with short-term disability, requiring help with instrumental daily activities and suicidal ideation. Health care providers are urged to proactively screen chronically ill patients for mood disorders, particularly among the subgroups found to have elevated risk for these disorders.
PubMed ID
18625088 View in PubMed
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Association of enrolment in primary care networks with diabetes care and outcomes among First Nations and low-income Albertans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128360
Source
Open Med. 2012;6(4):e155-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
David J T Campbell
Paul E Ronksley
Brenda R Hemmelgarn
Jianguo Zhang
Cheryl Barnabe
Marcello Tonelli
Braden Manns
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Open Med. 2012;6(4):e155-65
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta - epidemiology
Diabetes Complications - ethnology - therapy
Diabetes Mellitus - ethnology - therapy
Disease Management
Female
Health Services, Indigenous - economics - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Primary Health Care - economics - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Quality Improvement
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications is higher among First Nations people and people with low socio-economic status (SES). Previous studies in Alberta have shown that provision of care through Primary Care Networks (PCNs) is associated with better quality of care and better outcomes for people with diabetes, possibly because of greater utilization of chronic disease management programs. However, it is unknown whether First Nations individuals and those in lower SES groups experience these benefits.
We used administrative and laboratory data for a population-based cohort analysis of Alberta residents under 65 years of age with diabetes. The primary outcome, assessed over a 1-year period, was admission to hospital or emergency department visit for a diabetes-specific ambulatory care sensitive condition (ACSC). Secondary outcomes were 2 quality-of-care indicators (likelihood of measurement of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] and or retinal screening) and 2 measures of health care utilization (visits to specialist and primary care physicians). We used negative binomial regression to determine the association between care within a PCN and hospital admission or emergency department visit for diabetes-specific ACSCs. We also assessed outcomes in 3 populations of interest (individuals receiving a health care subsidy [household income less than $39 250 and not eligible for Income Support], those receiving Income Support, and First Nations individuals) relative to the remainder of the population, controlling for whether care was provided in a PCN and adjusting for several baseline characteristics.
We identified a total of 106 653 patients with diabetes eligible for our study, of whom 43 327 (41%) received care in a PCN. Receiving care through a PCN was associated with lower rates of ACSC-related hospital admission or emergency department visits for all groups of interest, which suggests that PCNs had similar effects across each group. However, regardless of where care was provided, First Nations and low-SES patients had more than twice the adjusted rates of hospital admission or emergency department visits for diabetes-specific ACSCs than the general population and were less likely to receive guideline-recommended care, including measurement of HbA1c and retinal screening.
Care in a PCN was associated with lower risks of hospital admission or emergency department visits for diabetes-specific ACSCs, even within vulnerable groups such as First Nations people and those of low SES. However, differences in outcomes and quality-of-care indicators persisted for First Nations individuals and those of low SES, relative to the general population, irrespective of where care was provided.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23687531 View in PubMed
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Associations between school deprivation indices and oral health status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139167
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;39(3):213-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Patricia Da Rosa
Belinda Nicolau
Jean-Marc Brodeur
Mike Benigeri
Christophe Bedos
Marie-Claude Rousseau
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, University of Quebec, Laval, Canada.
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;39(3):213-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Dental Health Surveys
Educational Status
Female
Health promotion
Humans
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Oral Health
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Quebec - epidemiology
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Despite an overall improvement in oral health status in several countries over the past decades, chronic oral diseases (COD) remain a public health problem, occurring mostly among children in the lower social strata. The use of publicly available indicators at the school level may be an optimal strategy to identify children at high risk of COD in order to organize oral health promotion and intervention in schools.
To investigate whether school deprivation indices were associated with schoolchildren oral health status.
This ecological study used a sample of 316 elementary public schools in the province of Quebec, Canada. Data from two sources were linked using school identifiers: (i) Two school deprivation indices (in deciles) from the Ministry of Education, a poverty index based on the low income cut-offs established by Statistics Canada and a socioeconomic environment index defined by the proportions of maternal under-schooling and of unemployed parents and (ii) Oral health outcomes from the Quebec Schoolchildren Oral Health Survey 1998-99 aggregated at the school level. These included proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain. The relation between school deprivation indices and oral health outcomes was assessed with linear regression for dental caries experience and logistic regression for oral pain.
The mean DMF-S (mean number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth surfaces) by school was 0.7 (SD = 0.5); the average proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain were 25.0% and 3.0%, respectively. The poverty index was not associated with oral health outcomes. For the socioeconomic environment index, dental caries experience was 6.9% higher when comparing schools in unfavourable socioeconomic environments to the most favourable ones [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 11.7%]. Furthermore, the most deprived schools, as compared to least deprived ones, were almost three times as likely to have children reporting oral pain in the previous week.
The school socioeconomic environment index was associated with oral health outcomes, and should be studied for its potential usefulness in planning school-based oral health promotion and screening strategies.
PubMed ID
21091525 View in PubMed
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Asthma and bronchiolitis hospitalizations among American Indian children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3827
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Oct;154(10):991-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
L L Liu
J W Stout
M. Sullivan
D. Solet
D K Shay
D C Grossman
Author Affiliation
Child Health Institute, 146 N Canal St, Suite 300, Seattle, WA 98103-8652, USA.
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Oct;154(10):991-6
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Asthma - epidemiology - ethnology - prevention & control
Bronchiolitis - epidemiology - ethnology - prevention & control
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Medical Record Linkage
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
United States
United States Indian Health Service
Washington - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare asthma and bronchiolitis hospitalization rates in American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) children and all children in Washington State. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis using Washington State hospitalization data for 1987 through 1996. Patients were included if asthma or bronchiolitis was the first-listed diagnosis. American Indian and Alaskan native children were identified by linking state hospitalization data with Indian Health Service enrollment data. RESULTS: Similar rates of asthma hospitalization were found for AI/AN children older than 1 year compared with all children. In AI/AN children younger than 1 year, hospitalization rates for asthma (528 per 100,000 population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 346-761) and bronchiolitis (2954 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 2501-3456) were 2 to 3 times higher than the rates in all children (232 per 100,000 population [95% CI, 215-251] and 1190 per 100,000 population [95% CI, 1149-1232], respectively). Hospitalization rates for asthma and bronchiolitis increased 50% between 1987 and 1996 for all children younger than 1 year and almost doubled for AI/AN children younger than 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: American Indian and Alaskan native children have significantly higher rates of hospitalization for wheezing illnesses during the first year of life compared with children of other age groups and races. Furthermore, the disparities in rates have increased significantly over time. Future public health measures directed at managing asthma and bronchiolitis should target AI/AN infants.
PubMed ID
11030850 View in PubMed
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