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Class, race, and infant mortality in the United States

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59545
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1993 Jan;83(1):9-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1993
  1 website  
Author
Hogue, CJ
Hargraves, MA
Author Affiliation
Emory University School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA 30329
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1993 Jan;83(1):9-12
Date
Jan-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Americans
African Continental Ancestry Group
Educational Status
European Continental Ancestry Group
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Poverty
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
As a result of Sweden's efforts to eliminate poverty and to provide comprehensive health care, there are only small social class differences in infant mortality. The wider social differences in US infant mortality are a consequence of less consistent and thorough attempts at social equity and universal health care. US Black infant mortality continues to be twice that of Whites, and the excess may partially result from racism. Public health research should examine the role of racism in infant mortality and develop interventions to eliminate racism and its effects on the health of Black Americans.
PubMed ID
8417615 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Equitable child health interventions: The impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29940
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):208-216
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
  1 website  
Author
Burström, B
Macassa, G
Oberg, L
Bernhardt E
Smedman, L
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. bo.burstrom@phs.ki.se
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):208-216
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Mortality - trends
Child Welfare - history
Child, Preschool
Diarrhea - history - mortality
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Poverty
Public Health - history
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sanitation - history - standards
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Water Supply - history - standards
Abstract
Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty--diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality. In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.
Notes
Comment In: American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):19515762014
PubMed ID
15671452 View in PubMed
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Neighborhood environment and self-reported health status: A multilevel analysis

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67520
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Aug;89(8):1181-1186
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1999
  1 website  
Author
Malmström, M
Sundquist, J
Johansson, SE
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden. marianne.malmstrom@dalby.lu.se
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Aug;89(8):1181-1186
Date
Aug-1999
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poverty Areas
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Small-Area Analysis
Social Environment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic environment helps to explain the proportion of community members with self-reported poor health status. METHODS: A random sample of 9240 persons aged 25 to 74 years were interviewed during 1988 and 1989. The socioeconomic environment of each respondent's neighborhood was measured with the Care Need Index (CNI) and the Townsend score. The data were analyzed with a multilevel model adjusted for the independent variables. The second-level variables were the 2 neighborhood scores. RESULTS: There was a clear gradient for poor health and education within every CNI interval so that with an increasing CNI (indicating more deprivation), the prevalence of poor health increased in all 3 education groups (P = .001). In the full model, decreasing educational level, obesity, length and frequency of smoking, physical inactivity, and increasing CNI were associated with poor health. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had a prevalence ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval = 1.44, 1.98) for poor health compared with those living in the most affluent areas. CONCLUSIONS: Both neighborhood socioeconomic environment and individual educational status are associated with self-reported poor health.
PubMed ID
10432903 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Sami responses to poverty in the Nordic countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295960
Source
In Indigenous peoples & poverty : an international perspective by CROP International Studies in Poverty Research. chapter 15. pp 274-289.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2005
15 | Sami responses to poverty in the Nordic countries C H R I S T I A N J A K O B B U R M E I S T E R H I C K S A N D Á N D E S O M B Y The Sami are the indigenous people of Fenno-Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden and Finland) and the Kola Peninsula (north-western Russia). This chapter
  1 document  
Author
Burmeister Hicks, Christian Jakob
Somby, Ande
Source
In Indigenous peoples & poverty : an international perspective by CROP International Studies in Poverty Research. chapter 15. pp 274-289.
Date
2005
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Norway
Russia
Sweden
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
104698
Keywords
Sami
Poverty
Political history
Culture
Education
Reindeer
Documents

Indigenous-Peoples-and-Poverty---An-International-Perspective.pdf

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