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Class, race, and infant mortality in the United States

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59545
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1993 Jan;83(1):9-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1993
  1 website  
Author
Hogue, CJ
Hargraves, MA
Author Affiliation
Emory University School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA 30329
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1993 Jan;83(1):9-12
Date
Jan-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
African Americans
African Continental Ancestry Group
Educational Status
European Continental Ancestry Group
Humans
Infant
Infant mortality
Infant, Newborn
Poverty
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
As a result of Sweden's efforts to eliminate poverty and to provide comprehensive health care, there are only small social class differences in infant mortality. The wider social differences in US infant mortality are a consequence of less consistent and thorough attempts at social equity and universal health care. US Black infant mortality continues to be twice that of Whites, and the excess may partially result from racism. Public health research should examine the role of racism in infant mortality and develop interventions to eliminate racism and its effects on the health of Black Americans.
PubMed ID
8417615 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Equitable child health interventions: The impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29940
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):208-216
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
  1 website  
Author
Burström, B
Macassa, G
Oberg, L
Bernhardt E
Smedman, L
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. bo.burstrom@phs.ki.se
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):208-216
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Mortality - trends
Child Welfare - history
Child, Preschool
Diarrhea - history - mortality
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Poverty
Public Health - history
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sanitation - history - standards
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Water Supply - history - standards
Abstract
Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty--diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality. In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.
Notes
Comment In: American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Feb;95(2):19515762014
PubMed ID
15671452 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Homelessness, alcoholism, and ethnic discrimination among Alaska Natives

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102396
Source
Arctic. 1991 Sep;44(3):247-253
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1991
  1 website  
Author
Travis, R
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
Source
Arctic. 1991 Sep;44(3):247-253
Date
Sep-1991
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska Natives
Alcoholism
Culture of poverty
Discrimination
Homelessness
Abstract
Homelessness among Alaska Natives is a social problem that currently plagues Anchorage, probably owing especially to the rapid social changes in rural Alaska following World War II. This study suggests that some Alaska Natives may be predisposed to homelessness after they have experienced relocation or social disruption during their high school years or problem drinking in their family of origin. A culture of poverty now appears to be reproducing itself in greater numbers than during the 1970s, when Alaska Native urban migrants were first studied. This subcultural context also appears to be reinforced by alcoholism and to a certain extent by ethnic discrimination, particularly in high school during adolescence and in the workplace during adulthood. Feeling discriminated against seems to foster anger, frustration, and self-blame among homeless Alaska Natives, who often come to see themselves as outcasts within the urban centers far from their homeland.
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Infant mortality trends and differences between American Indian/Alaska Native infants and white infants in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1998-2000

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80006
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2222-2227
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
  1 website  
Author
Tomashek, KM
Cheng, Q
Hsia, J
Iyasu, S
Barfield, WD
Flowers, LM
Author Affiliation
Maternal and Infant Health Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Ga 30341-3717, USA. kct9@cdc.gov
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2222-2227
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - ethnology - mortality
Accidents - mortality
Alaska - epidemiology
Birth weight
Cause of Death - trends
Cultural Deprivation
Death Certificates
European Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant Mortality - trends
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.)
Poverty - ethnology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sudden Infant Death - ethnology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in infant mortality rates, including birthweight-specific rates and rates by age at death and cause. METHODS: We analyzed US linked birth/infant-death data for 1989-1991 and 1998-2000 for American Indians/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White singleton infants at > or =20 weeks' gestation born to US residents. We calculated birthweight-specific infant mortality rates (deaths in each birthweight category per 1000 live births in that category), and overall and cause-specific infant mortality rates (deaths per 100000 live births) in infancy (0-364 days) and in the neonatal (0-27 days) and postneonatal (28-364 days) periods. RESULTS: Birthweight-specific infant mortality rates declined among AIAN and White infants across all birthweight categories, but AIAN infants generally had higher birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality rates declined for both groups, yet in 1998-2000, AIAN infants were still 1.7 times more likely to die than White infants. Most of the disparity was because of elevated post-neonatal mortality, especially from sudden infant death syndrome, accidents, and pneumonia and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Although birthweight-specific infant mortality rates and infant mortality rates declined among both AIAN and White infants, disparities in infant mortality persist. Preventable causes of infant mortality identified in this analysis should be targeted to reduce excess deaths among AIAN communities.
PubMed ID
17077400 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Neighborhood environment and self-reported health status: A multilevel analysis

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67520
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Aug;89(8):1181-1186
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1999
  1 website  
Author
Malmström, M
Sundquist, J
Johansson, SE
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden. marianne.malmstrom@dalby.lu.se
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Aug;89(8):1181-1186
Date
Aug-1999
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Poverty Areas
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Small-Area Analysis
Social Environment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic environment helps to explain the proportion of community members with self-reported poor health status. METHODS: A random sample of 9240 persons aged 25 to 74 years were interviewed during 1988 and 1989. The socioeconomic environment of each respondent's neighborhood was measured with the Care Need Index (CNI) and the Townsend score. The data were analyzed with a multilevel model adjusted for the independent variables. The second-level variables were the 2 neighborhood scores. RESULTS: There was a clear gradient for poor health and education within every CNI interval so that with an increasing CNI (indicating more deprivation), the prevalence of poor health increased in all 3 education groups (P = .001). In the full model, decreasing educational level, obesity, length and frequency of smoking, physical inactivity, and increasing CNI were associated with poor health. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had a prevalence ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval = 1.44, 1.98) for poor health compared with those living in the most affluent areas. CONCLUSIONS: Both neighborhood socioeconomic environment and individual educational status are associated with self-reported poor health.
PubMed ID
10432903 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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