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Assessing the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics to the household food security of low-income Toronto families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145125
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Boulevard EPN 4005, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. sharon.kirkpatrick@nih.gov
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Although the sociodemographic characteristics of food-insecure households have been well documented, there has been little examination of neighbourhood characteristics in relation to this problem. In the present study we examined the association between household food security and neighbourhood features including geographic food access and perceived neighbourhood social capital.
Cross-sectional survey and mapping of discount supermarkets and community food programmes.
Twelve high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Respondents from 484 low-income families who had children and who lived in rental accommodations.
Food insecurity was pervasive, affecting two-thirds of families with about a quarter categorized as severely food insecure, indicative of food deprivation. Food insecurity was associated with household factors including income and income source. However, food security did not appear to be mitigated by proximity to food retail or community food programmes, and high rates of food insecurity were observed in neighbourhoods with good geographic food access. While low perceived neighbourhood social capital was associated with higher odds of food insecurity, this effect did not persist once we accounted for household sociodemographic factors.
Our findings raise questions about the extent to which neighbourhood-level interventions to improve factors such as food access or social cohesion can mitigate problems of food insecurity that are rooted in resource constraints. In contrast, the results reinforce the importance of household-level characteristics and highlight the need for interventions to address the financial constraints that underlie problems of food insecurity.
PubMed ID
20196916 View in PubMed
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Infant mortality trends and differences between American Indian/Alaska Native infants and white infants in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1998-2000

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80006
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2222-2227
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
  1 website  
Author
Tomashek, KM
Cheng, Q
Hsia, J
Iyasu, S
Barfield, WD
Flowers, LM
Author Affiliation
Maternal and Infant Health Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Ga 30341-3717, USA. kct9@cdc.gov
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Dec;96(12):2222-2227
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - ethnology - mortality
Accidents - mortality
Alaska - epidemiology
Birth weight
Cause of Death - trends
Cultural Deprivation
Death Certificates
European Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infant
Infant Mortality - trends
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.)
Poverty - ethnology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sudden Infant Death - ethnology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in infant mortality rates, including birthweight-specific rates and rates by age at death and cause. METHODS: We analyzed US linked birth/infant-death data for 1989-1991 and 1998-2000 for American Indians/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White singleton infants at > or =20 weeks' gestation born to US residents. We calculated birthweight-specific infant mortality rates (deaths in each birthweight category per 1000 live births in that category), and overall and cause-specific infant mortality rates (deaths per 100000 live births) in infancy (0-364 days) and in the neonatal (0-27 days) and postneonatal (28-364 days) periods. RESULTS: Birthweight-specific infant mortality rates declined among AIAN and White infants across all birthweight categories, but AIAN infants generally had higher birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality rates declined for both groups, yet in 1998-2000, AIAN infants were still 1.7 times more likely to die than White infants. Most of the disparity was because of elevated post-neonatal mortality, especially from sudden infant death syndrome, accidents, and pneumonia and influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Although birthweight-specific infant mortality rates and infant mortality rates declined among both AIAN and White infants, disparities in infant mortality persist. Preventable causes of infant mortality identified in this analysis should be targeted to reduce excess deaths among AIAN communities.
PubMed ID
17077400 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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