This study investigated temporal trends in heterogeneity of foetal growth restriction across neighbourhood deprivation levels for two culturally distinct communities (Anglophones and Francophones) in a North American metropolitan centre. Inequalities in foetal growth restriction related to deprivation fell from 1989 to 2008 for Francophones, but initial improvements for Anglophones later reversed with a rise in poor foetal growth in the most materially disadvantaged and, unexpectedly, advantaged areas as well. Inequalities in foetal growth restriction related to neighbourhood material deprivation may be emerging in this minority Anglophone population. Potential mechanisms underlying these trends are discussed, as well as implications for perinatal health policy.
Few studies have investigated how area-level deprivation influences the relationship between individual disadvantage and suicide mortality. The aim of this study was to examine individual measures of material and social disadvantage in relation to suicide mortality in Canada and to determine whether these relationships were modified by area deprivation.
Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N = 2,685,400), measures of individual social (civil status, family structure, living alone) and material (education, income, employment) disadvantage were entered into Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for male and female suicide mortality. Two indices of area deprivation were computed - one capturing social, and the other material, dimensions - and models were run separately for high versus low deprivation.
After accounting for individual and area characteristics, individual social and material disadvantage were associated with higher suicide mortality, especially for individuals not employed, not married, with low education and low income. Associations between social and material area deprivation and suicide mortality largely disappeared upon adjustment for individual-level disadvantage. In stratified analyses, suicide risk was greater for low income females in socially deprived areas and males living alone in materially deprived areas, and there was no evidence of other modifying effects of area deprivation.
Individual disadvantage was associated with suicide mortality, particularly for males. With some exceptions, there was little evidence that area deprivation modified the influence of individual disadvantage on suicide risk. Prevention strategies should primarily focus on individuals who are unemployed or out of the labour force, and have low education or income. Individuals with low income or who are living alone in deprived areas should also be targeted.
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Interpregnancy interval (IPI), marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood.
We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997-2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA) birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (
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Rates of infant mortality declined in Canada in the 1990s and 2000s, but the extent to which all socio-economic levels benefitted from this progress is unknown.
This study investigated differences and time trends in neonatal, postneonatal and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) mortality across neighbourhood income quintiles among live births in Canada from 1991 through 2005.
The Canadian linked live birth and infant death file was used, excluding births from Ontario, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Mortality rates for neonatal, postneonatal and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were calculated by neighbourhood income quintile and period (1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005). Hazard ratios (HR) for neighbourhood income quintile and period were computed, adjusting for province of residence, maternal age, parity, infant sex and multiple birth.
In urban areas, for the entire study period (1991-2005), the poorest neighbourhood income quintile had a higher hazard of neonatal death (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.15-1.34), postneonatal death (adjusted HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.41-1.76) and SIDS (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.49-2.26) compared to the richest quintile. Postneonatal and SIDS mortality rates declined by 37% and 57%, respectively, between 1991-1995 and 2001-2005 whereas no significant change was observed in neonatal mortality. The decrease in postneonatal and SIDS mortality rates occurred across all income quintiles.
This study shows that despite a decrease in infant mortality and SIDS across all neighbourhood income quintiles over time in Canada, socio-economic inequalities persist. This finding highlights the need for effective infant health promotion strategies in vulnerable populations.
Little research has evaluated disparities in life expectancy according to material deprivation taking into account differences across the lifespan between men and women. This study investigated age- and sex-specific life expectancy differentials related to area-level material deprivation for the province of Québec, Canada from 1989-2004.
Age- and sex-specific life expectancy across the lifespan was calculated for three periods (1989-1992, 1995-1998, and 2001-2004) for the entire Québec population residing in 162 community groupings ranked according to decile of material deprivation. Absolute and relative measures were calculated to summarize differences between the most and least deprived deciles.
Life expectancy differentials between the most and least deprived deciles were greatest for men. Over time, male differentials increased for age 20 or more, with little change occurring at younger ages. For women, differentials increased across the lifespan and were comparable to men at advanced ages. Despite gains in life expectancy among men relative to women, differentials between men and women were greater for most deprived relative to least deprived deciles.
Similar to the US, differentials in life expectancy associated with area-level material deprivation increased steadily in Québec from 1989-2004 for males and females of all ages. Differentials were comparable between men and women at advanced ages. Previous research indicating that life expectancy differentials between most and least deprived areas are greater in men may be due to a focus on younger age groups.
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Evidence suggests that individual socioeconomic status is a better predictor of preterm birth (PTB) than other individual social characteristics, but it is not clear if socioeconomic (material) area context is likewise more strongly related to PTB than social area characteristics. We compared material and social area deprivation to determine which was more strongly associated with PTB. Live singleton births from Québec, Canada were obtained for 1999-2006 (N = 581,898). PTB was defined as