A sample of 443 Pakistani infants from four different socioeconomic areas was followed longitudinally study the emergence of the primary teeth. The mean ages of emergence of the primary teeth, without regard what kind of tooth and dental ages of the primary teeth were calculated. The subjects showed no sexual dimorphism in the emergence times of the primary teeth. The children from poor areas. were ahead by statistically significant differences from upper middle class, for emergence of the primary teeth 17-20. On comparison with Swedish standards (Hägg & Taranger, 1985) Pakistani children are delayed, by a statistically significant difference, in the emergence of primary teeth 1-16, however, they were at par in the emergence of 17-20 primary teeth.
Both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses on a large and recent Swedish data set demonstrate that, compared to children in intact families, children who have experienced family dissolution or reconstitution show lower educational attainment at age 16. Time constraints do not seem to be an important mechanism behind the negative effect of separation. Economic deprivation affects children's attainment negatively, but downward social mobility appears to be an even more important causal mechanism: Losing the parent with the higher social position probably reduces social capital and aspirations. When we control for socioeconomic characteristics, a small net effect of separation and reconstitution remains.
Underlying moral values of individuality versus community and assumptions about what is a "just society" make public policies toward children vastly different in Sweden and the United States. This article explores the origins, cost, and benefits of welfare policies that permit child poverty in the U.S. as a cost of the high value of autonomy/individuality, and policies that prevent child poverty in Sweden, at the cost of economic competitiveness and individual initiative. I conclude that both extremes of moral values have more social costs than benefits but that children should be protected in any nation as the future of the society.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period. DESIGN: Analysis of data from the annual Survey of Living Conditions (ULF), conducted by Statistics Sweden from 1979-1995. Comparison of demographic, socioeconomic and health status of lone and couple mothers and how these have varied over the 17 years of the study. Main outcome measures include prevalence of self perceived general health and limiting longstanding illness. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All lone mothers (n = 2776) and couple mothers (n = 16,935) aged 16 to 64 years in a random sample of the Swedish population in a series of cross sectional surveys carried out each year between 1979 and 1995. MAIN RESULTS: The socioeconomic conditions of lone mothers deteriorated during the period 1979-1995, with increasing unemployment and poverty rates. Lone mothers had worse health status than couple mothers throughout the period. In comparison with the first two periods, the prevalence of less than good health increased among both lone and couple mothers from the late 1980s onwards. For lone and couple mothers who were poor, their rates of less than good health were similar in the early 1980s, but in 1992-95 poor lone mothers were significantly more likely to report less than good health than poor couple mothers. Unemployed lone mothers had particularly high rates of ill health throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: As in other European countries, lone mothers are emerging as a vulnerable group in society in Sweden, especially in the economic climate of the 1990's. While they had very low rates of poverty and high employment rates in the 1980s, their situation has deteriorated with the economic recession of the 1990's. The health status of lone mothers, particularly those who are unemployed or poor, appears worse than that of couple mothers and in some circumstances may be deteriorating. Further study is needed to elucidate the mechanisms mediating their health disadvantage compared with couple mothers.
Comment In: J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Dec;53(12):74910656082
This study examines the extent to which people forego seeking primary health care due to the cost and to investigate the associated demographic, physical, psychological and social factors. In 1995, questionnaires were sent to a random sample of the population in two healthcare regions in the Stockholm area in Sweden covering a total of about 400,000 inhabitants. Among the sample of 8200 people over the age of 17 yr, 69% replied to the questionnaire. About 22% stated that on one or more occasions during the past year they had foregone seeking care due to the cost. About 30% stated that they had foregone or hesitated seeking medical help due to the cost during the past year. This applied to women to a greater extent than men. Not seeking medical care was strongly correlated to a self-assessment of personal finances. Among those who described their financial situation as poor, more than half stated that, on at least one occasion, they had foregone seeking medical care due to the cost. As a consequence, weaker groups in society such as the unemployed, students, foreign nationals and single mothers were overrepresented in this group. Those who had foregone care perceive their health as worse and they had a greater degree of general pains and a higher occurrence of chronic disease/disability compared to those who had not foregone care. Between 1970 and 1995, patient charges for consulting a general practitioner within Stockholm County have increased more than three times faster than the consumer price index. The results suggest that the rapidly increasing patient charges particularly affect the weaker social groups and thus pose a threat to the aim of Swedish healthcare legislation--that good care should be available to everyone on equal terms.
The research has been aimed at answering two questions: (1) What factors impact perception and acceptance of technological and environmental hazards? (2) Why are rich societies involved more in protecting their environment and health than poor societies? Data has been collected from representative samples of two countries--Poland and Sweden. The results indicate that (1) contrary to earlier findings, the inverse relations between perceived benefits and dangers of hazards has not been observed, (2) acceptance of a risk has been mostly influenced by perceived benefits, (3) rejection of a risk has been mostly influenced by its perceived harmful consequences. Concerning the second question, it has been found that: (1) perceived hazard's danger and benefit is not the only factor that impacts its acceptance, and (2) a broader economic context can impact acceptance (tolerance) of hazards. It has been found that being aware of high dangers and not very high benefits of hazardous activities, Poles still have accepted them. Thus, Poles seem to follow an old proverb: "When one does not have what one likes, one has to like what one has."
This study takes stock of available comparative research on the economic status of elderly single women in six industrialized countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. A systematic comparison of income has become easier due to such standardized data bases as the Luxembourg Income Study. But an explanation for different poverty rates among older women who are on their own requires a further, differentiated assessment of the countries' retirement benefit structures. This article attempts such a review. It makes use of a variety of single-country sources and takes into account the institutional heterogeneity of old-age security systems. The study concludes with a view of the effectiveness of different old-age security systems in preventing poverty among older single women.