Farmers are known to be at high risk from the development of occupational airway disease. The first stage of the European farmers' study has shown that pig farmers in Denmark and Germany, poultry farmers in Switzerland and greenhouse workers in Spain were at highest risk for work-related respiratory symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine exposure levels at relevant farm workplaces. Dust and endotoxin levels as well as microbiological concentrations were determined in 213 crop and animal farming environments by personal sampling. The highest total dust concentrations were found in poultry houses in Switzerland with median concentrations of 7.01 mg/m(3). The median airborne endotoxin concentrations in total dust ranged between 0.36 ng/m(3) in Spanish greenhouses and 257.58 ng/m(3) in poultry houses in Switzerland. Likewise, the highest median concentrations of total (2.0 x (7) cells/m(3)) and active fungi (4.4 x (5) cfu/m(3)) have been found in Swiss poultry houses. The predominant fungus taxa discovered in poultry houses were Eurotium spp. and thermophilic fungi. Cladosporium and Botrytis were mainly detected in greenhouses. The exposure level found in this study might put the farmers at risk from respiratory diseases.
The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from Danish broiler chickens since both sick and presumably healthy animals were investigated. Isolates (n=279) collected from chickens from 25 farms were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with the restriction enzyme SmaI. A high genetic diversity was found. Isolates with different PFGE types were toxin typed by PCR and all were found to be of type A. The results showed that healthy broiler chickens carried several different C. perfringens clones both within a flock and even within individual birds, whereas flocks suffering from necrotic enteritis (NE) or cholangio-hepatitis carried only one or two clones.
Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU and the epidemiology of sporadic campylobacteriosis, especially the routes of transmission, is to a great extent unclear. Poultry easily become colonised with Campylobacter spp., being symptom-less intestinal carriers. Earlier it was estimated that internationally between 50% and 80% of the cases could be attributed to chicken as a reservoir. In a Norwegian surveillance programme all broiler flocks under 50 days of age were tested for Campylobacter spp. The aim of the current study was to identify simultaneous local space-time clusters each year from 2002 to 2007 for human cases of campylobacteriosis and for broiler flocks testing positive for Campylobacter spp. using a multivariate spatial scan statistic method. A cluster occurring simultaneously in humans and broilers could indicate the presence of common factors associated with the dissemination of Campylobacter spp. for both humans and broilers.
Local space-time clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. occurring simultaneously were identified in all investigated years. All clusters but one were identified from May to August. Some municipalities were included in clusters all years.
The simultaneous occurrence of clusters of humans and broilers positive for Campylobacter spp. combined with the knowledge that poultry meat has a nation-wide distribution indicates that campylobacteriosis cases might also be caused by other risk factors than consumption and handling of poultry meat.Broiler farms that are positive could contaminate the environment with further spread to new broiler farms or to humans living in the area and local environmental factors, such as climate, might influence the spread of Campylobacter spp. in an area. Further studies to clarify the role of such factors are needed.
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Dec;70(12):7474-8015574950
The causes of the simultaneous rise of salmonellosis morbidity induced by S. enteritidis among the population of three towns in the Perm region were studied. The study revealed the leading role of eggs and chicken meat as factors contributing to the transfer of this infection to the population of different territories, commonly supplied with the products of one poultry plant. The contamination of eggs and chickens with S. enteritidis occurred at the plant due to Salmonella infection of chickens, parallel with the use of nonbalanced mixed fodder, originally intended for feeding swine. Analysis of the epidemic and epizootic processes of Salmonella infection in this epidemic situation made it possible to reliably establish the factors contributing to the transfer of the infective agent and the site of contamination.
[An assessment of the connection between the annual population morbidity of salmonellosis due to Salmonella enteritidis and the dynamics of the epizootic process among chickens in commercial poultry plants].
The dynamics of annual morbidity in salmonellosis caused by S. enteritidis among the population of Perm during the period of 1987-1992 was analyzed. Blood sera taken from 4,689 practically healthy donors and from 6,997 hens at poultry breeding complexes were studied in the passive hemagglutination test with the use of complex Salmonella diagnosticum. The study revealed that seasonal rises in morbidity caused by S. enteritidis in winter and spring months, as well as in autumn months, were linked with the activation of the epizootic process of Salmonella infection among hens at poultry-breeding complexes during these periods of the year. A rise in the level of anti-Salmonella antibodies in poultry and human blood sera was found to be the precursor of the aggravation of the epidemic situation.
Serum samples from 641 workers of large poultry and meat-packing plants were studied in the passive hemagglutination test with the use of Salmonella complex and serogroup diagnostica. A specific increase in the level of anti-Salmonella antibodies in 60.7% of poultry plant workers and in 9.8% of meat-packing plant workers was established. Among the workers of the poultry plants the most pronounced immune shifts were detected in persons having contacts with sick poultry and pathological material and among the employees of the meat-packing plant, in those who ate raw sausage meat. A high level of antibodies in the professional groups under study was observed as early as in the first year of work at the plant and persisted over the whole period of this work. Under the conditions of constant contamination of the workers of poultry and meat-packing plants with small doses of salmonellae specific immunity to this infection was seemingly induced, which inhibited the development of the manifest forms of infection, but did not prevent the formation of chronic carrier state.
In the middle of June 1980 an explosive outbreak of campylobacter enteritis occurred among the staff of a poultry abattoir in southern Sweden. In all 37 cases of acute gastroenteritis originating from the abattoir were reported and Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the stools in 24 of them. When the outbreak occurred, a large proportion of the ordinary staff had been replaced by inexperienced teenagers working during their holidays. A specially big slaughter had also taken place the same week as these inexperienced workers had started. The holiday workers contracted the disease to a greater extent (71%) than the ordinary staff (29%). An overall screening revealed 5 asymptomatic carriers among the ordinary staff. In 3 cases secondary spread was found.
Duck virus enteritis occurred in the spring of 1982 among domesticated mallards, Pekin ducks and geese producing eggs for the same hatchery. Wild mallards may have introduced the infection to the domestic birds. High mortality occurred in one flock of Pekin ducks and in young geese. Mallards were also affected, but less severely. Gross and microscopic lesions were in general typical for DVE. Virus was demonstrated by electron microscopy of Bursa fabricii from experimentally infected ducklings. Neutralizing antibodies were found in serum from ducks, surviving an acute outbreak in the flock. Vaccination was performed and hygienic precautions taken, and transmission from infected flocks to progeny was negligible.