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Analysis of body-burden measurements of 137Cs and 40K in a Japanese group over a period of 5 years following the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75071
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Sep;71(3):320-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
M. Uchiyama
Y. Nakamura
S. Kobayashi
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan.
Source
Health Phys. 1996 Sep;71(3):320-5
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Humans
Japan
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
A selected group of about 20 male researchers at the NIRS that reside in Chiba, Japan, was measured for total body content of radiocesium and 40K every 3 mo from February 1986 to May 1991. A whole-body counter at the NIRS was used to measure their radioactivity in a scanning mode of 5 cm min-1 in a shielded iron room with walls 20 cm in thickness. A maximum radiocesium level of 59 Bq was observed in May 1987. The annual change in the body burden decreased with an apparent half-time of 1.8 y after May 1987. The period of five years was sufficient to eliminate the effects of the accident in this group. Even in the most contaminated period, the dose from radiocesium was below 2 microSv y-1. The cumulative dose for 5 y was estimated to be 5.6 microSv, which is nearly equal to the total dose to the Japanese people caused by the artificial radionuclide fallout for the first year following the accident. It is much smaller than the committed dose of 82 microSv for internally deposited 137Cs resulting from nuclear explosions in 1961 and 1962 and the annual dose of 170 microSv from internal 40K. No detectable health risk was expected for the present group.
PubMed ID
8698573 View in PubMed
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Body Potassium Content and Radiation Dose from 40K for the Urals Population (Russia).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281010
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154266
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Evgenia I Tolstykh
Marina O Degteva
Nikolay G Bougrov
Bruce A Napier
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154266
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body Burden
Body Weight
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism
Potassium - analysis - metabolism
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis - metabolism
Radiation Dosage
Russia
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
Long-term whole-body monitoring of radionuclides in residents of the Urals Region has been performed at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM, Chelyabinsk). Quantification of 40K was achieved by measuring the 40K photopeak with four phoswich detectors in whole body counter SICH-9.1M. The current study presents the results of 40K measurements in 3,651 women and 1,961 t-test; U-test men aged 11-90; measurements were performed in 2006-2014. The residents belonged to two ethnic groups, Turkic (Tatar, Bashkir) and Slavs (mainly Russian). The levels of 40K-body contents depend upon gender, age, and body mass. Significant ethnic-differences were not found in 40K-body contents and 40K concentrations in terms of Bq per kg of body weight (in groups homogenous by age and gender). Both 40K-body contents and concentrations were significantly higher in men than in women in all age-groups; the difference was about 25%. The measured 40K-body content in men of 20-50 years was about 4200 Bq (134 g of K) and about 3000 Bq (95 g of K) in women. By the age of 80 these values decreased to 3200 Bq (102 g of K) in men and 2500 Bq (80 g of K) in women. Annual dose rates were maximal in the age group of 20-30 years- 0.16 mGy/y for men and 0.13 mGy/y for women. Further, the dose-rates decreased with age and in the groups of 60-80 years were 0.13 mGy/y for men and 0.10 mGy/y for women. Within groups homogeneous by age and gender, individual dose rates are described by a normal statistical distribution. The coefficient of variation ranges from 9 to 14%, and on the average is 12.5%. Doses from naturally occurring 40K accumulated over 70 years were found to be 9.9 mGy for men and 8.3 mGy for women; over 90 years - 12.5 and 10.4 mGy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27111330 View in PubMed
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Daily intakes of 134Cs, 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, and 238U in Ukrainian adult males.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61919
Source
Health Phys. 1997 Nov;73(5):814-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1997
Author
K. Shiraishi
K. Tagami
T. Ban-nai
M. Yamamoto
Y. Muramatsu
I P Los
G V Phedosenko
V N Korzun
N Y Tsigankov
I I Segeda
Author Affiliation
Division of Human Radiation Environment, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan.
Source
Health Phys. 1997 Nov;73(5):814-9
Date
Nov-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Diet
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Geography
Humans
Male
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Thallium Radioisotopes - analysis
Ukraine
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
Total diet samples were collected to estimate dietary intakes of several radionuclides for Ukrainian males by duplicate portion studies. The samples were collected in the Kiev, Rovno and Volynsky regions in autumn of 1994. Some foodstuffs, including milk and potato, were also collected in the same regions. Daily intakes of 232Th and 238U were estimated to be 2.0 mBq and 7.5 mBq per person, respectively. The estimated daily intake of 40K, 85 Bq per person, was equivalent to that of Reference Man (the intake of a West European and a North American). Daily intakes of 137Cs were found to be quite different between some regions. Daily intakes were 1.8 Bq per person in the Kiev region and 12 Bq per person in the Rovno and Volynsky regions. Daily intake of 134Cs was below 1 Bq per person.
PubMed ID
9378658 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of an early warning system for airborne radionuclides.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294847
Source
Appl Radiat Isot. 2017 Aug; 126:228-231
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
J Kastlander
C Söderström
Author Affiliation
Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-164 90 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: johan.kastlander@foi.se.
Source
Appl Radiat Isot. 2017 Aug; 126:228-231
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Evaluation Studies
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Barium Radioisotopes - analysis
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Cobalt Radioisotopes - analysis
Equipment Design
Humans
Limit of Detection
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation - statistics & numerical data
Radon - analysis
Sodium Iodide
Sweden
Abstract
An early warning system for detection of increased levels of radioactivity in outdoor air was operative between 2004 and 2011 at the Swedish air sampling stations. The system consisted of a low resolution detector (NaI), positioned directly behind the filter and measurement of the accumulated radioactivity were performed continuously. An evaluation of the data collected during the period is presented with emphasis on natural occurring radionuclides and their influence on the detectability of anthropogenic radionuclides.
PubMed ID
27955839 View in PubMed
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Extraction of full absorption peaks in airborne gamma-spectrometry by filtering techniques coupled with a study of the derivatives. Comparison with the window method.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194542
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2001;53(3):381-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
L. Guillot
Author Affiliation
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Centre d'Etudes de Bruyères le Châtel, 91680 Bruyères le Châtel, France. guillot@dase.bruyeres.cea.fr
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2001;53(3):381-98
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air pollution, radioactive - analysis
Algorithms
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Finland
Humans
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation - methods - standards
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Software Validation
Spectrometry, Gamma - instrumentation - methods - standards
Thorium - analysis
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
In this paper, an adaptation of a spectral profile analysis method, currently used in high-resolution spectrometry, to airborne gamma measurements is presented. A new algorithm has been developed for extraction of full absorption peaks by studying the variations in the spectral profile of data recorded with large-volume NaI detectors (16 l) with a short sampling time (2 s). The use of digital filters, taking into consideration the characteristics of the absorption peaks, significantly reduced the counting fluctuations, making detection possible based on study of the first and second derivatives. The absorption peaks are then obtained by modelling, followed by subtraction of the Compton continuum in the detection window. Compared to the conventional stripping ratio method, spectral profile analysis offers similar performance for the natural radioelements. The 137Cs 1SD detection limit is approximately 1200 Bq/m2 in a natural background of 200 Bq/kg 40K, 33 Bq/kg 238U and 33 Bq/kg 232Th. At low energy the very high continuum leads to detection limits similar to those obtained by the windows method, but the results obtained are more reliable. In the presence of peak overlaps, however, analysis of the spectral profile alone is not sufficient to separate the peaks, and further processing is necessary. Within the framework of environmental monitoring studies, spectral profile analysis is of great interest because it does not require any assumptions about the nature of the nuclides. The calculation of the concentrations from the results obtained is simple and reliable, since only the full absorption contributions are taken into consideration. A quantitative estimate of radioactive anomalies can thus be obtained rapidly.
PubMed ID
11379064 View in PubMed
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Gamma-dose rates from terrestrial and Chernobyl radionuclides inside and outside settlements in the Bryansk Region, Russia in 1996-2003.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173372
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2006;85(2-3):205-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Valery Ramzaev
Hidenori Yonehara
Ralf Hille
Anatoly Barkovsky
Arkady Mishine
Sarat Kumar Sahoo
Katsumi Kurotaki
Masafumi Uchiyama
Author Affiliation
Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira street, 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg, Russia.
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2006;85(2-3):205-27
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Construction Materials
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Gamma Rays
Humans
Poaceae
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radioactive fallout
Radioactive Hazard Release
Radium - analysis
Russia
Seasons
Snow
Soil Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Thorium - analysis
Abstract
In order to estimate current external gamma doses to the population of the Russian territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, absorbed gamma-dose rates in air (DR) were determined at typical urban and suburban locations. The study was performed in the western districts of the Bryansk Region within the areas of 30 settlements (28 villages and 2 towns) with the initial levels of 137Cs deposition ranging from 13 to 4340 kBqm(-2). In the towns, the living areas considered were private one-story wooden and stone houses. DR values were derived from in situ measurements performed with the help of gamma-dosimeters and gamma-spectrometers as well as from the results of soil samples analysis. In the areas under study, the values of DR from terrestrial radionuclides were 25+/-6, 24+/-5, 50+/-10, 32+/-6, 54+/-11, 24+/-8, 20+/-6, 25+/-8, and 18+/-5 nGyh(-1) at locations of kitchen gardens, dirt surfaces, asphalt surfaces, wooden houses, stone houses, grasslands inside settlement, grasslands outside settlement, ploughed fields, and forests, respectively. In 1996-2001, mean normalized (per MBqm(-2) of 137Cs current inventory in soil) values of DR from (137)Cs were 0.41+/-0.07, 0.26+/-0.13, 0.15+/-0.07, 0.10+/-0.05, 0.05+/-0.04, 0.48+/-0.12, 1.04+/-0.22, 0.37+/-0.07, and 1.15+/-0.19 microGyh(-1) at the locations of kitchen gardens, dirt surfaces, asphalt surfaces, wooden houses, stone houses, grasslands inside settlement, grasslands outside settlement, ploughed fields, and forests, respectively. The radiometric data from this work and the values of occupancy factors determined for the Russian population by others were used for the assessments of annual effective doses to three selected groups of rural population. The normalized (per MBqm(-2) 137Cs current ground deposition) external effective doses to adults from 137Cs ranged from 0.66 to 2.27 mSvy(-1) in the years 1996-2001, in accordance with professional activities and structures of living areas. For the areas under study, the average external effective doses from 137Cs were estimated to be in the range of 0.39-1.34 mSvy(-1) in 2001. The average external effective doses from natural radionuclides appeared to be lower than those from the Chernobyl fallout ranging from 0.15 to 0.27 mSvy(-1).
PubMed ID
16095775 View in PubMed
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Intercomparison of whole-body counters by using a subject who had incorporated 137Cs into the body.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190766
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;98(2):179-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
V. Ramzaev
T. Ishikawa
P. Hill
T. Rahola
G. Kaidanovsky
H. Yonehara
R. Hille
M. Uchiyama
Author Affiliation
St Petersburg Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Russia.
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;98(2):179-89
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adult
Body Burden
Calibration
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Finland
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Phantoms, Imaging
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Prognosis
Reproducibility of Results
Ukraine
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
During the years 1996-2000, eight whole-body counting facilities (WBC) from Finland, Germany, Japan and Russia took part in an intercomparison using a resident of the Russian town of Novozybkov who had been seriously contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The subject R (adult male, height 172 cm average body mass 64 kg; and 137Cs body burden within the range of 1-15 kBq) was investigated in the participating institutions during his business trips. The experimentally obtained data for his 137Cs body burden were compared with the predicted values, which had been deduced from the measurements of subject R using the reference WBC (St Petersburg Institute of Radiation Hygiene) and from his effective half-time of 137Cs in the body (68 days). The obtained results did not deviate more than 20% from reference activities. Four facilities were able to quantity the 40K in the subject's body. The differences between reported values of potassium did not exceed 10%. For subject R, the average annual effective dose from radiocaesium was 0.25 mSv and it was 0.18 mSv from 40K in the years 1996/97. The reliability of using a subject with naturally incorporated artificial radionuclides ('walking standard') instead of an anthropomorphous phantom for calibration and intercomparison of whole-body counters in a large-scale nuclear accident is discussed.
PubMed ID
11926368 View in PubMed
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Long-term follow-up of the 137Cs body burden of individuals after the Chernobyl accident--a means for the determination of biological half-lives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33143
Source
Health Phys. 1999 Oct;77(4):373-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
W. Rühm
K. König
A. Bayer
Author Affiliation
Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim, Germany. w.ruehm@Lrz.uni-muenchen.de
Source
Health Phys. 1999 Oct;77(4):373-82
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Burden
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Germany
Half-Life
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Radioactive fallout
Reference Values
Time Factors
Ukraine
Abstract
Since 1986, the year of the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs body burdens of members of a Bavarian reference group have been measured monthly. These time series were individually analyzed with respect to the long-term component T1 of the biological half-life of 137Cs, assuming a continuous 137Cs intake, which is based on reference data for the food consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 13 individual cases, T1 was additionally deduced after single ingestion of 137Cs. The resulting T1 deduced from continuous and from single intake agreed within about 20%. Using the results of 64 cases, it is shown that there is a dependency of T1 with sex for adults. T1 for children and adults are also significantly different. When combining all data for children, adult females and adult males, significant correlations of T1 with age, 40K and body mass can be found. Since body mass, for example, is a parameter very simple to measure, the given correlations are useful for practical purposes.
PubMed ID
10492343 View in PubMed
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Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278954
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2016 May;155-156:105-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
M. Döse
J. Silfwerbrand
C. Jelinek
J. Trägårdh
M. Isaksson
Source
J Environ Radioact. 2016 May;155-156:105-11
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Construction Materials - standards
Gamma Rays
Models, Theoretical
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radium - analysis
Reference Values
Spectrometry, Gamma
Sweden
Thorium - analysis
Abstract
The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ~16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.
PubMed ID
26942843 View in PubMed
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Radioactive contamination of food sampled in the areas of the USSR affected by the Chernobyl disaster.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59638
Source
Analyst. 1992 Mar;117(3):545-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1992
Author
W G de Ruig
T D van der Struijs
Author Affiliation
State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products-DLO (RIKILT-DLO), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Source
Analyst. 1992 Mar;117(3):545-8
Date
Mar-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Animals
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Food Contamination, Radioactive - analysis
Gamma Rays
Geography
Humans
Infant
Infant Food - analysis
Nuclear Reactors
Potassium Radioisotopes - analysis
Radioactive fallout
USSR
Ukraine
Abstract
In October 1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited contaminated regions in Russia, Byelorussia and the Ukraine. The mission consisted of medical, socio-psychological and agricultural experts. The results of radioactivity measurements on food products sampled in the contaminated areas are reported here and the radiation burden for the Soviet citizens due to these products is discussed. The radiocaesium contamination measured in 19 food products ranged between 0 and 170 Bq kg-1 and 40K from 25 to 200 Bq kg-1 in the fresh product. Strontium-90, measured in a few samples, was found to be between 1.8 and 30 Bq kg-1. Mushrooms and reindeer moss were very highly contaminated: from 103,000 to 284,000 Bq kg-1 of radiocaesium in the fresh product. Strontium-90 in these samples was 7.8-1550 Bq kg-1. The contamination of all food products was far below the stated limits, except for mushrooms. Extrapolation of the results to the total food consumption gave the radioactive burden due to this food as an estimated 0.2 mSv per year. All of the food products investigated, except mushrooms, can be regarded as safe with respect to radioactive contamination. In addition to sampling agricultural produce, field exposure measurements were also carried out. The measured values, expressed in equivalent doses, ranged from 1.8 to 14 mSv per year at a height of 1 m, with a median value of about 4 mSv per year.
PubMed ID
1580398 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.