Prolonged occupational standing has previously been associated with low back pain (LBP) development. The immediate effects of a bout of prolonged standing on subsequent functional movement performance have not been investigated. It is possible that including a period of prolonged standing may have acute, detrimental effects. The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of a prolonged standing exposure on biomechanical profiles (trunk muscle activation, joint stiffness and kinematics) during three functional movements. A total of 23 volunteers without history of LBP performed lumbar flexion, single-leg stance and unloaded squat movements pre- and post 2 h of standing exposure. It was found that 40% of the participants developed LBP during the standing exposure. There was a decrease in vertebral joint rotation stiffness in lateral bending and increased centre of pressure excursion during unilateral stance following standing exposure. There may be adverse effects to prolonged standing if followed by activities requiring precise balance or resistance of side loads. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Prolonged standing may result in decreases in balance reactions during narrow base conditions as well as in the capacity to effectively resist side-loads at the trunk. Consideration should be given when prolonged standing is included in the workplace.
Numerous methods for studying the prevention of falls and age-related sensorimotor degradation have been proposed and tested. Some approaches are too impractical to use with seniors or too expensive for practitioners. Practitioners desire a simple, reliable technique. The goals of this research were to develop such an approach and to apply it in exploring the effect of Tai Chi on age-related sensorimotor degradation. The method employed artificial-neural-network (ANN) models trained by using individuals' center-of-pressure (COP) measurements and age. Ninety-six White and Chinese adults without Tai Chi training were tested. In contrast, a third group, Chinese seniors with Tai Chi training, was tested to ascertain any influence from Tai Chi on sensorimotor aging. This study supported ANN technology with COP data as a feasible tool in the exploration of sensorimotor degradation and demonstrated that Tai Chi slowed down the effects of sensorimotor aging.
The aim of the study was to explore the effects of baby swimming on subsequent motor abilities.
A range of motor abilities was examined in 4-year-old children who had previously participated in a programme of baby swimming (n= 19) and compared with a matched group of coevals who had not had this experience (n= 19).
As predicted from the nature of the exercises that comprise the programme, the effects of baby swimming were restricted to abilities associated with prehension and balance.
Suggestions are made as to how the theme of this hypothesis-generating, demonstration study can be pursued in the future with more rigorous experimental controls and applications to children with disabilities and impairments.
The postural and functional balance abilities of workers in physically demanding jobs were assessed in relation to age and occupation. Postural balance was tested with a force platform, and functional balance was measured during walking on a wooden plank. The subjects, 23-61 years of age, were fire fighters (men, n = 69), construction workers (men, n = 52), nursing staff (women, n = 51), and home care workers (women, n = 66). In the older (> or = 50 years) groups the time used for the functional balance test was 3-5 s longer and the velocity moment of the postural balance was 16-30 mm2/s higher than in the groups aged
Balance impairment is a significant problem for older adults, as it can influence daily functioning. Treating balance impairment in this population is a major focus of physical therapist practice.
The purpose of this study was to document current practices in clinical balance assessment and compare components of balance assessed and measures used across practice areas among physical therapists.
This was a cross-sectional study.
A survey questionnaire was mailed to 1,000 practicing physical therapists in Ontario, Canada.
Three hundred sixty-nine individuals completed the survey questionnaire. More than 80% of respondents reported that they regularly (more than 60% of the time) assessed postural alignment, static and dynamic stability, functional balance, and underlying motor systems. Underlying sensory systems, cognitive contributions to balance, and reactive control were regularly assessed by 59.6%, 55.0%, and 41.2% of the respondents, respectively. The standardized measures regularly used by the most respondents were the single-leg stance test (79.1%), the Berg Balance Scale (45.0%), and the Timed "Up & Go" Test (27.6%). There was considerable variation in the components of balance assessed and measures used by respondents treating individuals in the orthopedic, neurologic, geriatric, and general rehabilitation populations.
The survey provides quantitative data about what is done to assess balance, but does not explain the factors influencing current practice.
Many important components of balance and standardized measures are regularly used by physical therapists to assess balance. Further research, however, is needed to understand the factors contributing to the relatively lower rates of assessing reactive control, the component of balance most directly responsible for avoiding a fall.
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To investigate the relation between fall-related efficacy in daily-life activities and functional as well as instrumental tests of balance in patients with hip fracture.
Analysis of different aspects of balance using the Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version FES(S), questions on fear of falling, Functional Reach (FR) and tests on a balance platform (Chattanooga).
Fifty-five elderly inpatients (mean age 82.3) with newly operated hip fracture who were assessed during the last week in hospital before discharge.
The results showed a significant relationship between the subjective ability measured with the FES(S) and the objectively measured balance in the Functional Reach test and also between fall-related efficacy measured with FES(S) and fear of falling. Very few significant correlations were found between the results from balance tests on the force platform and those obtained with FES(S) and FR.
Both the Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version, and the Functional Reach have been shown to be useful in analysing balance function in elderly patients newly operated on for hip fracture. The Falls Efficacy Scale also indicates which of the daily activities the patient perceives as troublesome and thus require further training.
To evaluate the effects of a balance training program including dual- and multi-task exercises on fall-related self-efficacy, fear of falling, gait and balance performance, and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis with an increased risk of falling and to evaluate whether additional physical activity would further improve the effects.
Randomized controlled trial, including three groups: two intervention groups (Training, or Training+Physical activity) and one Control group, with a 12-week follow-up.
Stockholm County, Sweden.
Ninety-six older adults, aged 66-87, with verified osteoporosis.
A specific and progressive balance training program including dual- and multi-task three times/week for 12 weeks, and physical activity for 30 minutes, three times/week.
Fall-related self-efficacy (Falls Efficacy Scale-International), fear of falling (single-item question - 'In general, are you afraid of falling?'), gait speed with and without a cognitive dual-task at preferred pace and fast walking (GAITRite®), balance performance tests (one-leg stance, and modified figure of eight), and physical function (Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument).
Both intervention groups significantly improved their fall-related self-efficacy as compared to the controls (p = 0.034, 4 points) and improved their balance performance. Significant differences over time and between groups in favour of the intervention groups were found for walking speed with a dual-task (p=0.003), at fast walking speed (p=0.008), and for advanced lower extremity physical function (p=0.034).
This balance training program, including dual- and multi-task, improves fall-related self-efficacy, gait speed, balance performance, and physical function in older adults with osteoporosis.
Studies have shown that 65% of people with dizziness may have a vestibular etiologic diagnosis, possibly benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The diagnosis of BPPV is based on medical history and findings after the Dix-Hallpike test. It is sometimes difficult to perform the Dix-Hallpike test in elderly persons, due to the limited range of motion when extending the neck. In this study, we used a side-lying test to stimulate the posterior semicircular canal, while the head and neck were fully supported on the examination table. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of dizziness and/or impaired balance and BPPV in a population of 75-year-olds by means of a questionnaire and clinical tests, and to compare elderly persons with and without BPPV.
A representative population sample of 675 persons completed a questionnaire about dizziness and 571 persons underwent side-lying, static balance and dynamic walking tests.
Subjective dizziness and/or impaired balance were found in 36% of subjects, especially when walking outdoors. A significant gender difference was found, with a higher prevalence in women (40%) compared with men (30%) (p
To investigate the effects of body awareness therapy on balance, mobility, balance confidence, and subjective health status in persons with stroke.
A pilot randomized controlled study with follow-up at one and 4-6 weeks after the intervention period.
Four primary healthcare centres in Örebro County Council.
Persons more than six months post stroke, with walking ability of 100 metres.
The experimental intervention was body awareness therapy in groups once a week for eight weeks. The controls were instructed to continue their usual daily activities.
Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, Timed Up and Go Test with a cognitive component, 6-minute walk test, and Timed-Stands Test. Self-rated balance confidence was assessed using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and subjective health status using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire.
A total of 46 participants were included (mean age 64 years); 24 in the experimental intervention group and 22 in the control group. No significant differences in changed scores over time were found between the groups. Within the experimental intervention group, significant improvements over time was found for the tests Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go cognitive, and 6-minute walk test. Within the control group, significant improvements over time were found for the Timed Up and Go Cognitive, and the Timed-Stands Test.
In comparison to no intervention, no effects were seen on balance, mobility, balance confidence, and subjective health status after eight weeks of body awareness therapy.
In our hospital in 1989 a series of 30 healthy elderly people participated in a study to evaluate the effect of physical training on improving balance. Thereafter, the majority of the people in this group continued with some kind of balance training. Seven years later we followed up 17 of the people who had participated in the original study. We wanted to evaluate the balance performance of these physically active elderly people (mean age 80.5 years) and compare it with their balance performance 7 years previously. Balance was found to be significantly impaired compared with 1989 in four out of six static balance tests. The time required to walk 30 m had increased significantly. The subjective ratings of vertigo and balance problems had not changed significantly, neither had the number of correct steps when walking forwards on one line and backwards between two lines. In dynamic posturography, the test with sway-referenced visual cues showed improved postural control, but no change in sway was seen in the other five sensory conditions. When sudden backward translations of the platform occurred, increased latencies of force response were seen.