The purpose of this study was to investigate the 5-year outcome following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Little is known about long-term outcomes following TAVI.
The 5-year outcomes following successful TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve were evaluated in 88 patients. Patients who died within 30 days after TAVI were excluded.
Mean aortic valve gradient decreased from 46 ± 18 mm Hg to 10 ± 4.5 mm Hg after TAVI and 11.8 ± 5.7 mm Hg at 5 years (p for post-TAVI trend = 0.06). Mean aortic valve area increased from 0.62 ± 0.17 cm(2) to 1.67 ± 0.41 cm(2) after TAVI and 1.40 ± 0.25 cm(2) at 5 years (p for post-TAVI trend
A retrospective study was undertaken of all surgical patients in Malmö, Sweden, during the period 1951-1980, in whom pulmonary emboli were found at autopsy. The autopsy rate was high throughout the period, ranging from 73 to 100 per cent. Of 5477 patients who died during the period, 1274 had pulmonary emboli (23.6 per cent), 349 of which were considered fatal, 353 contributory to death and 572 incidental. Fifty-one per cent of the patients were not operated upon. The number of contributory and incidental emboli increased over the period, to some extent probably reflecting greater thoroughness in postmortems. The frequency of fatal pulmonary emboli decreased in the last 5 year period. Pulmonary embolism was more rare in patients under 50 years of age. The proportion of females increased. In 24 cases major embolism emanated from thrombi around central venous catheters. This retrospective analysis of a large number of patients shows that pulmonary embolism continues to be a major cause of death in surgical patients, and in Malmö as common a cause of death in operated as in nonoperated patients.
PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of radiotherapy after sector resection for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS) in patient groups as defined by age, size of the lesion, focality, completeness of excision and mode of detection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1,067 women in Sweden were randomly assigned to either postoperative radiotherapy (RT) or control from 1987 to 1999, and 1,046 were followed for a mean of 8 years. The main outcome was new ipsilateral breast cancer events and distant metastasis-free survival analyzed according to intention to treat. RESULTS: There were 64 ipsilateral events in the RT arm and 141 in the control group corresponding to a risk reduction of 16.0 percentage points at 10 years (95% CI, 10.3% to 21.6%) and a relative risk of 0.40 (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in distant metastasis-free survival. There was an effect modification by age, yielding a low effect of RT in women younger than 50, but substantial protection in women older than 60 years. The age effect was not confounded by focality, lesion size, completeness of excision, or detection mode. There was no group as defined by our stratification variables that had a low risk without radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that younger women have a low protective effect of conventional RT after sector resection. Older women benefit substantially. We caution that the age effect was seen in a subgroup analysis. Further search with conventional clinical variables for a low risk group that does not need RT does not seem fruitful.
A total of 126 patients with odontogenic inflammatory diseases were examined, 54 of these in Moscow and 72 in Yakutsk. The clinical and immunological parameters were assessed on days 2 and 6 after similar operations. In residents of Yakutsk the inflammatory process was associated with a more expressed intoxication and coursed 1.5 to 2 days longer than in Muscovites; moreover, the residents of Yakutsk developed higher leukocytosis and a drop of T-lymphocyte level with the predominance of T-helpers. Hence, odontogenic inflammations take mainly a hyperergic course in Yakutsk and a normergic one in Moscow.
The similarity of average parameters of thyrocyte aggregates and their distribution on histograms was revealed using comparative morphometric analysis of pre- and postoperative samples from thyroid glands of patients with identical histologic analyses. These regularities may be used as additional diagnostic criteria of thyroid cancer at both pre- and postoperative stages.
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there was any local activation of complement in the vicinity of a colonic cancer, and any fluctuation in the function of the complement system during operation. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: One university and two district hospitals in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 29 selected patients undergoing emergency and elective operations for colonic cancer. INTERVENTIONS: Measurements of systemic and local complement fixation capacity and complement activation in samples of serum or plasma taken before, during, and after operation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in complement fixation capacity and complement activation during operation. RESULTS: Haemodilution during operation caused a significant reduction in the complement fixation capacity of serum and in the activation of the complement system as measured by generation of C3c. We were unable to confirm the presence of complement inhibitors during operation. Haemodilution caused a 30% reduction in fixation capacity of C3b (12/29 samples of serum had values more than 2SD below the mean of the reference range compared with 4/29 before operation). The activity of C4 was reduced by 25% during operation and the capacity of the complement system to fix C3b and C4b was restored to baseline nine days postoperatively. Concentration of C3d was significantly higher in serum from tumour venous blood compared with that from peripheral blood during operation. CONCLUSION: The presence of complement activation products in the general circulation reflects local activation of the complement system in the vicinity of the tumour, but this may have been influenced by tissue necrosis or subclinical infection. Haemodilution causes a significant reduction in the capacity of the complement system during operation, whereas inhibitory factors associated with the cancer or operation and anaesthesia could not be demonstrated. We found no correlation between complement activity and clinical data.
Surgical stress can influence oncological outcome and survival. The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is designed to reduce perioperative stress and has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity. We studied if adherence to ERAS is associated with increased long-term survival.
Between the years 2002 and 2007, 911 consecutive patients, operated with major colorectal cancer surgery at Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden were analyzed. The histopathological reports of the resected specimen, date, and cause of death of the patients as well as postoperative CRP levels were obtained. The relation between the rate of adherence to the ERAS protocol at the time of surgery, and the short-term outcomes in relation to 5-year overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival was determined in this retrospective cohort study.
In patients with =70 % adherence to ERAS interventions (N = 273,), the risk of 5-year cancer-specific death was lowered by 42 %, HR 0.58 (0.39-0.88, cox regression) compared to all other patients (
BACKGROUND: Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. METHODS: Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40-46 Gy in 20-25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). FINDINGS: After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 0.75-1.48; p=0.77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI 0.84-1.29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local recurrence rate in the observation group at 5 years was 6.1%. INTERPRETATION: Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy cannot be recommended as part of routine treatment for women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage endometrial cancer with the aim of improving survival. The absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy in preventing isolated local recurrence is small and is not without toxicity.
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Jan 10;373(9658):97-919070890
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is treated surgically. There is a risk for faecal incontinence and constipation postoperatively. The long-term bowel functional outcome in adults and quality of life are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess bowel function and quality of life in patients who had undergone surgery for HSCR during childhood.
All patients treated between 1969 and 1994 at St. Göran's Children's Hospital in Stockholm were invited to participate in the study. After consent, the patients received questionnaires containing general questions, validated questions on bowel function, questions about urinary function, SF-36 health survey (SF-36) and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Clinical data were extracted from the case records. Controls matched for sex and age were randomly selected from the National Swedish Population Register.
48 of 60 (80%) invited patients responded to the questionnaires. Nine patients were excluded since the HSCR diagnosis could not be confirmed. The median age of the included patients was 28 (20-43) years. Most patients had undergone Soave's operation (73.4%) and two patients had a stoma at the time of follow-up. The bowel function was impaired in the HSCR group compared to controls, especially problems with flatulence, need to strain at defecation and several defecations for emptying. Patients in the HSCR group also had significantly more problems with faecal incontinence than controls. Quality of life according to SF-36 did not differ significantly between patients and controls, but the GIQLI score showed a significantly worse outcome in the HSCR group compared to the controls.
General quality of life in adults treated for HSCR during childhood is comparable to controls. However, they have impaired bowel function and gastrointestinal quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a prospective study the relationship between age, pre-operative status, waiting time and post-operative outcome in patients assigned for unilateral total hip replacement (THR) due to osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: One hundred and forty-eight patients (mean age 71 yr) with primary OA of the hip were investigated pre-operatively and 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). For 56 of the patients an additional evaluation was made when they were placed on the waiting list. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients fulfilled the study criteria (age 50 yr or over and unilateral THR for OA during the study period). Before surgery there were no differences in the WOMAC or SF-36 subscales (except mental health) between patients aged over and under 72 yr. Post-operatively, the younger patients reached a better score than the older patients. There were no differences in pre-operative status or post-operative outcome between the patients who had been on the waiting list more than and less than 3 months. Most pain relief after hip replacement was obtained by 3 months, while it took at least 1 yr to reach the full benefit in improved function. Ninety per cent of the patients had improved by at least 10 points on a 100-point scale for pain and function at 12 months. CONCLUSION: The age of the patients assigned for THR did not determine their pre-operative status. However, younger patients gained more function post-operatively than older patients and reached higher absolute mean SF-36 values, except for pain. An average difference in time on the waiting list of 3 months did not result in a difference in post-operative outcome. At least 1 yr is required for the average OA patient to gain the full benefit of the THR.