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American Indian/Alaska Native uninsurance disparities: A comparison of 3 surveys

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99194
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2010 Oct;100(10):1972-1979
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Johnson, PJ
Blewett, LA
Call, KT
Davern, M
Author Affiliation
University of Minnesota
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 2010 Oct;100(10):1972-1979
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska Natives
American Indians
Current Population Survey (CPS)
Health care disparities
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
Non-Hispanic whites
Uninsurance rates
Abstract
Objectives. We examined whether 3 nationally representative data sources produce consistent estimates of disparities and rates of uninsurance among the American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) population and to demonstrate how choice of data source impacts study conclusions. Methods. We estimated all-year and point-in-time uninsurance rates for AIANs and non-Hispanic Whites younger than 65 years using 3 surveys: Current Population Survey (CPS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Results. Sociodemographic differences across surveys suggest that national samples produce differing estimates of the AIAN population. AIAN all-year uninsurance rates varied across surveys (3%-23% for children and 18%-35% for adults). Measures of disparity also differed by survey. For all-year uninsurance, the unadjusted rate for AIAN children was 2.9 times higher than the rate for White children with the CPS, but there were no significant disparities with the NHIS or MEPS. Compared with White adults, AIAN adults had unadjusted rate ratios of 2.5 with the CPS and 2.2 with the NHIS or MEPS. Conclusions. Different data sources produce substantially different estimates for the same population. Consequently, conclusions about health care disparities may be influenced by the data source used. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 19, 2010: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.167247).
PubMed ID
20724698 View in PubMed
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The world’s northern most harbour seal population - How many are there?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297160
Source
University of Tromsø, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology. 41 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2012
moult first, followed by adult females, and lastly adult males [29,30,31]. The pupping and moulting periods constitute the time of the year when the highest proportion of harbour seals is hauled out on shore and thus represents the best times to conduct population surveys. However, even during the
  1 document  
Author
Merkel, Benjamin
Source
University of Tromsø, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology. 41 p.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1327149
Keywords
Svalbard
Harbour seal
Population survey
Abstract
This study presents the first abundance estimate for the world's northernmost harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) population, which resides in Svalbard, Norway, based on three digital stereoscopic photographic surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010. The counts from these high resolution 3D images were combined with a novel method for estimating correction factors for animals that were in the water at the time of the surveys, in which extensive behavioural data from radio-tagged harbour seals were used together with a modelled stationary age structure to estimate the proportion of seals of various age and sex classes hauled out at the times of the surveys. To detect possible seasonal shifts in age distribution between surveys, lengths of hauled out seals were measured from the stereoscopic images. No such length differences were detected; but, this may be due to a high degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited in this population. Applying the modelled correction factors, a total of 1888 (95 % CI: 1660-3023), 1742 (1381-3549) and 1812 (1656-4418) harbour seals were estimated for the surveys flown on 01 August 2009, 01 August 2010 and 19 August 2010, respectively.The similarity between the three survey estimates (despite significant differences in the number of animals actually counted on the photos from each survey effort) suggests that the variation in numbers of hauled out seals is reasonably accurately adjusted for by the correction factor model. The low population size, the limited spatial distribution of the population and its reduced genetic diversity make it vulnerable to stochastic mortality events. However, barring disease events, climate change—a major threat to many arctic marine mammals—is likely to have a positive impact on this population as more suitable habitat becomes available and competition from endemic arctic pinnipeds is reduced.
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