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4762 records – page 1 of 477.

2nd-generation HIV surveillance and injecting drug use: uncovering the epidemiological ice-berg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84543
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Reintjes Ralf
Wiessing Lucas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Faculty Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany. Ralf.Reintjes@rzbd.haw-hamburg.de
Source
Int J Public Health. 2007;52(3):166-72
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Europe - epidemiology
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Turkey - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. The so called "2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems" aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. METHODS: Concepts of HIV SGS are reviewed with a special focus on injecting drug users, a major at-risk and hard to reach group in Europe, a region with mainly low or concentrated epidemics. RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. Specifically for IDUs we propose including hepatitis C data as indicator for injecting risk in routine systems like those monitoring sexually transmitted infections and information on knowledge and attitudes as potential major determinants of risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems.
PubMed ID
17958283 View in PubMed
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[3 reports on population health. Who will take care of my health?].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225541
Source
Lakartidningen. 1991 Oct 16;88(42):3443-6, 3451-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-16-1991

5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy in the Reykjavik Eye Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51922
Source
Ophthalmology. 2005 Jan;112(1):132-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Fridbert Jonasson
Arsaell Arnarsson
Tunde Peto
Hiroshi Sasaki
Kazuyuki Sasaki
Alan C Bird
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. fridbert@landspitali.is
Source
Ophthalmology. 2005 Jan;112(1):132-8
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Macular Degeneration - classification - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine the age- and gender-specific 5-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in citizens of Reykjavik. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort was a population-based random sample of citizens 50 years and older. Of 1379 eligible subjects, 1045 had a baseline examination in 1996; 846 of the 958 survivors (88.2%) had a 5-year follow-up examination in 2001. METHODS: The incidence of various characteristics of drusen and pigmentary changes that are typical of ARM were determined using the international classification and grading system for ARM and AMD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Early ARM and AMD were assessed by masked grading of stereo fundus photographs. RESULTS: Hypopigmentation developed at 5 years in 10.7% of people 50 to 59 years of age (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-14.4) and in 25.7% those 70 to 79 years of age (95% CI, 18.4-33.0) at baseline. Age-related macular degeneration developed in no one who was 50 to 59 years of age at baseline. Geographic atrophy (GA) developed in 4.6% (95% CI, 1.2-7.9) and exudative AMD in none of those who were 70 years and older at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is the predominant type of AMD in Iceland, and the ratio of GA to neovascular AMD is higher than in racially similar populations.
PubMed ID
15629833 View in PubMed
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5-y Follow-up study of patients with neuroborreliosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31443
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34(6):421-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Johan Berglund
Louise Stjernberg
Katharina Ornstein
Katarina Tykesson-Joelsson
Hallstein Walter
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. johan.berglund@ltblekinge.se
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34(6):421-5
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Lyme Neuroborreliosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The objective of this follow-up study was to determine the long-term outcome of strictly classified cases of neuroborreliosis treated with antibiotics. A 1-y prospective population-based survey of Lyme borreliosis was conducted in southern Sweden between 1992 and 1993. A total of 349 identified cases with suspected neuroborreliosis were followed up 5 y later. Medical records were reviewed and all participants filled in a questionnaire. Of those patients classified with definite neuroborreliosis, 114/130 completed the follow-up, of whom 111 had completed the initial antibiotic treatment. Of the 114 patients followed up, 86 (75%) had recovered completely and 70 (61%) had recovered within 6 months. Residual neurological symptoms, such as facial palsy, concentration disorder, paresthesia and/or neuropathy, were reported by 28/114 patients. No significant differences between different antibiotic treatments were observed in terms of the occurrence of sequelae. To conclude, we found that 25% (95% confidence interval 17-33%) of the patients suffered from residual neurological symptoms 5 y post-treatment. However, the clinical outcome of treated neuroborreliosis is favorable as only 14/114 (12%) patients had sequelae that influenced their daily activities post-treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment would seem to be of great importance in order to avoid such sequelae.
PubMed ID
12160168 View in PubMed
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[10-year dynamics of attitude to health problems in the male population of Novosibirsk (epidemiological study based on the WHO MONICA program)]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74937
Source
Ter Arkh. 2003;75(1):27-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
V V Gafarov
V A Pak
I V Gagulin
T D Babina
Source
Ter Arkh. 2003;75(1):27-30
Date
2003
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
English Abstract
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Siberia - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
AIM: To evaluate changes for a decade in the attitude of men in Novosibirsk to health problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: WHO program MONICA has covered males aged 25-64 years (a representative sample from the population in one of the districts of Novosibirsk city). A total of 3 trials were made (in 1984, 1988 and 1994) which included questioning, registration of ECG, arterial pressure, height, body mass, biochemical tests of the blood. RESULTS: Attitude of men to their health depended on their age. There was a trend to evaluate their health as more and more poor in men at the age of 25-43 and 35-44 years. In the group of 45-54-year-olds positive assessment of health was encountered 1.9 times more frequently, but the difference was not significant. At the age 55-64 years a growing number of men tend to assess their health as good. Since 1994 alcoholics among the elderly men grew in number as a response to the social and economic crisis. CONCLUSION: The change in health evaluation from negative to positive in older men may relate to less intensive work.
PubMed ID
12652951 View in PubMed
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A 10-year follow-up of a population-based study of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm, Sweden: changes in health-related quality of life and the value of different factors in predicting health-related quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259017
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2014
Author
Charlotte Chruzander
Charlotte Ytterberg
Kristina Gottberg
Ulrika Einarsson
Lotta Widén Holmqvist
Sverker Johansson
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Date
Apr-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Population Surveillance - methods
Predictive value of tests
Quality of Life - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is negatively affected compared to that of the general population. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms have been shown to predict worse HRQL in a short-term perspective. Considering the progressive nature of MS, it is essential to include the long-term (10 years) perspective of HRQL in PwMS.
The aim of this 10-year follow-up of a population-based sample of PwMS was to explore changes in and the predictive value of personal factors, degree of MS disability, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment on HRQL.
Data on personal and disease-specific factors, mood, and cognitive function was collected. Data on HRQL was collected, seen as a health profile with the Sickness Impact Profile, as a health index with the EuroQol 5D and as a single global question with the EQ Visual Analog Scale.
HRQL worsened over 10 years according to the health profile (Sickness Impact Profile Total and its physical dimension) and according to the health index. The effect sizes were small. HRQL assessed with the single global question remained unchanged. Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment predicted worse HRQL.
In a 10-year perspective the HRQL with regard to its physical domain or when seen as a total health profile tends to get worse in PwMS. Yet, HRQL with regard to its psychosocial domain and with regard to PwMS' self-rated health, remains stable. There is a potential for health-care professionals to decrease the impact of modifiable factors on HRQL in PwMS by identifying those with depressive symptoms and/or cognitive impairment and initiating evidence-based treatment as well as meeting the need for environmental facilitators aiming at reducing disability.
PubMed ID
24492009 View in PubMed
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A 10-year prospective study of tobacco smoking and periodontal health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67464
Source
J Periodontol. 2000 Aug;71(8):1338-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
J. Bergström
S. Eliasson
J. Dock
Author Affiliation
Department of Periodontology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Periodontol. 2000 Aug;71(8):1338-47
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alveolar Bone Loss - epidemiology
Analysis of Variance
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Dental Plaque Index
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gingival Hemorrhage - epidemiology
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Music
Observer Variation
Oral Hygiene
Periodontal Diseases - epidemiology
Periodontal Pocket - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Smoking - epidemiology
Smoking Cessation - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: To date only a few studies have evaluated the long-term influence of smoking and smoking cessation on periodontal health. The present study, therefore, was undertaken with the aim to prospectively investigate the influence of smoking exposure over time on the periodontal health condition in a targeted population before and after a follow-up interval of 10 years. METHODS: The primary study base consisted of a population of occupational musicians that was investigated the first time in 1982 and scheduled for reinvestigation in 1992 and 2002. The 1992 investigation included 101 individuals from the baseline study constituting a prospective cohort including 16 smokers, who had continued to smoke throughout the entire length of the 10-year period; 28 former smokers who had ceased smoking an average of approximately 9 years before the commencement of the baseline study; 40 non-smokers, who denied ever having smoked tobacco; and 17 individuals whose smoking pattern changed or for whom incomplete data were available. The clinical and radiographic variables used for the assessment of the periodontal health condition of the individual were frequency of periodontally diseased sites (probing depth > or =4 mm), gingival bleeding (%), and periodontal bone height (%). The oral hygiene standard was evaluated by means of a standard plaque index. RESULTS: The changes over the 10 years with respect to frequency of diseased sites indicated an increased frequency in continuous smokers versus decreased frequencies in former smokers and non-smokers. Controlling for age and frequency of diseased sites at baseline, the 10-year change was significantly associated with smoking (P
PubMed ID
10972650 View in PubMed
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The 12-month prevalence and characteristics of major depressive episode in a representative nationwide sample of adolescents and young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192702
Source
Psychol Med. 2001 Oct;31(7):1169-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001
Author
L. Haarasilta
M. Marttunen
J. Kaprio
H. Aro
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Psychol Med. 2001 Oct;31(7):1169-79
Date
Oct-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Time Factors
Abstract
This study set out to estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R major depressive episode (MDE) and to analyse factors associating with psychosocial impairment, episode duration, phenomenology and symptom severity in a representative general population sample of adolescents (15-19-year-olds) and young adults (20-24-year-olds).
The Finnish Health Care Survey '96 (FINHCS '96) was a cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study. A random sample of 509 adolescents and 433 young adults was interviewed in 1996. MDE was assessed by University of Michigan Composite Diagnostic Interview Short-Form.
The 12-month prevalence of MDE was 5.3 % for adolescents (females 6.0%, males 4.4%) and 9.4% for young adults (females 10.7%, males 8.1%). When moderate psychosocial impairment was included in case definition, the prevalences were lowered by 20-25%. Increased impairment was associated with drunkenness at least twice a month, a higher mean number of depressive symptoms and impaired concentration. The median episode duration was 1 month. No factors associating with duration were found. With the exception of symptoms related to appetite being more common among females than males, the phenomenology of MDE was mainly independent of age and gender.
Episodes of major depression among adolescents and young adults in the general population are short but often associated with psychosocial impairment, especially if frequent drunkenness coexists.
PubMed ID
11681543 View in PubMed
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15 years after Chernobyl: new evidence of thyroid cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19395
Source
Lancet. 2001 Dec 8;358(9297):1965-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-8-2001
Author
Y. Shibata
S. Yamashita
V B Masyakin
G D Panasyuk
S. Nagataki
Source
Lancet. 2001 Dec 8;358(9297):1965-6
Date
Dec-8-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Byelarus - epidemiology
Child
Female
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Population Surveillance
Radioactive fallout
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident happened on April 26, 1986. We investigated the cause of the striking increase in frequency of thyroid cancer in children who lived within a 150 km radius of Chernobyl and who were born before and after the accident. No thyroid cancer was seen in 9472 children born in 1987-89, whereas one and 31 thyroid cancers were recorded in 2409 children born April 27, 1986, to Dec 31, 1986, and 9720 born Jan 1, 1983, to April 26, 1986, respectively. Short-lived radioactive fallout caused by the Chernobyl accident probably induced thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl.
PubMed ID
11747925 View in PubMed
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[20-year monitoring of acute cardiovascular diseases in population of large industrial city in West Siberia (epidemiological study)]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54128
Source
Ter Arkh. 2000;72(1):15-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
V V Gafarov
Source
Ter Arkh. 2000;72(1):15-21
Date
2000
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health
Population Surveillance
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Siberia - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Survival Rate
Urban Population
Abstract
AIM: To reveal trends in incidence rates of acute cardiovascular diseases (ACD) in a large industrial city of the West Siberia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies on WHO programs "Acute Myocardial Infarction Register" and "MONICA" have been performed in three districts of Novosibirsk. The diagnostic categories were detected without difference. The observation covered stable population of 500,000 residents aged 25-64 years. Trends in the myocardial infarction (MI) mortality, morbidity and lethality were analysed for 1977-1996. RESULTS: The above trends were stable except for 1986 when MI mortality, morbidity and lethality decreased and 1988 and 1994 when they went up. The reduction was due to 7-year prevention program while the rise was consequent to discontinuation of the preventive measures. Major risk factors of ischemic heart disease, according to screenings conducted in 1984, 1988 and 1994 remained at about the same level. Social stress closely correlates with a rise in MI morbidity and mortality. The latter in 1994 grew owing to higher rates of MI mortality and morbidity among the oldest men and females of different age groups. CONCLUSION: Urgent intensification of prophylactic measures is needed both at the populational level and the level of high risk strategy.
PubMed ID
10687199 View in PubMed
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4762 records – page 1 of 477.