Skip header and navigation

Refine By

27 records – page 1 of 3.

Agent-based modeling of the spread of the 1918-1919 flu in three Canadian fur trading communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141452
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2010 Nov-Dec;22(6):757-67
Publication Type
Article
Author
Caroline A O'Neil
Lisa Sattenspiel
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA. cahillen@yahoo.com
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2010 Nov-Dec;22(6):757-67
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Epidemics
History, 20th Century
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - history
Manitoba - epidemiology
Population Dynamics - history - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population - history - statistics & numerical data
Seasons
Abstract
Previous attempts to study the 1918-1919 flu in three small communities in central Manitoba have used both three-community population-based and single-community agent-based models. These studies identified critical factors influencing epidemic spread, but they also left important questions unanswered. The objective of this project was to design a more realistic agent-based model that would overcome limitations of earlier models and provide new insights into these outstanding questions.
The new model extends the previous agent-based model to three communities so that results can be compared to those from the population-based model. Sensitivity testing was conducted, and the new model was used to investigate the influence of seasonal settlement and mobility patterns, the geographic heterogeneity of the observed 1918-1919 epidemic in Manitoba, and other questions addressed previously.
Results confirm outcomes from the population-based model that suggest that (a) social organization and mobility strongly influence the timing and severity of epidemics and (b) the impact of the epidemic would have been greater if it had arrived in the summer rather than the winter. New insights from the model suggest that the observed heterogeneity among communities in epidemic impact was not unusual and would have been the expected outcome given settlement structure and levels of interaction among communities.
Application of an agent-based computer simulation has helped to better explain observed patterns of spread of the 1918-1919 flu epidemic in central Manitoba. Contrasts between agent-based and population-based models illustrate the advantages of agent-based models for the study of small populations.
PubMed ID
20721982 View in PubMed
Less detail

Close relatives and outsiders: village people in the city of Yakutsk, Siberia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165870
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):51-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Tatiana Argounova-Low
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2007;44(1):51-61
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropology - education - history
Community Networks - history
Demography - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Intergenerational Relations - ethnology
Population Dynamics - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Rural Population - history
Siberia - ethnology
Social Alienation - psychology
Social Behavior - history
Abstract
The paper presents a snapshot of the city-village connections in the city of Yakutsk and an anthropological account of the dynamics of the relationship between the city and villages around it. Demographic changes that started in the 1980s, prompted by a decline in agriculture, initiated an exodus of the rural population from the countryside into the city of Yakutsk. This paper explores the migration dynamics of the rural population to the city. Two conflicting aspects of the relationship between the city and village are the focus of this paper: treating village people as close kin and as outsiders. I examine the image of ulusnik [a villager] and consider rationales behind the stigma attached to it and a social role of the Other which is imposed on the people from the countryside.
PubMed ID
21847840 View in PubMed
Less detail

Did pre-Clovis people inhabit the Paisley Caves (and why does it matter)?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268453
Source
Hum Biol. 2014;86(1):69-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014

Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171361
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):40-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Susan A Crate
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2006;43(1):40-51
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Environment
Food Supply - economics - history
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Intergenerational Relations - ethnology
Life Change Events - history
Population Dynamics - history
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Russia - ethnology
Social Change - history
Socioeconomic Factors - history
Survival - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders.
PubMed ID
21847844 View in PubMed
Less detail

The end of the Kachemak tradition on the Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146397
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2010;47(2):90-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
William B Workman
Karen Wood Workman
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2010;47(2):90-6
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - ethnology
Anthropology, Cultural - education - history
Continental Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Diet - ethnology - history
Extinction, Biological
Food - history
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Inuits - education - ethnology - history - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Mortality - ethnology - history
Population Dynamics - history
Social Change - history
Social Conditions - history
Abstract
The Kachemak tradition was established by ca. 3000 B.P. in Kachemak Bay. Probably somewhat later a variant termed Riverine Kachemak, with a population adapted to salmon and terrestrial resources, appeared on the northern Kenai Peninsula. The Kachemak tradition people seem to have abandoned Kachemak Bay by ca. 1400 B.P. Seven of 12 available Kachemak tradition dates predate 1400 B.P. even at two sigma. Scattered younger dates are thus suspect outliers. The end of Riverine Kachemak tradition has been placed at ca. 1000 B.P., at which time the population was supposedly replaced by in-migrating groups ancestral to the Dena'ina Athapaskans. Close examination of the numerous available radiocarbon dates shows that most Riverine Kachemak dates cluster in the early centuries of the First Millennium A.D. and most Dena'ina dates substantially postdate 1000 A.D. Probably the Riverine Kachemak and Dena'ina peoples never met on the Kenai River. However, the correspondence in date ranges between Kachemak Bay and Riverine Kachemak is striking, suggesting their fates were linked. Both traditions collapsed by 1400-1500 B.P. The causes are probably multiple but do not include cultural replacement.
PubMed ID
21495283 View in PubMed
Less detail

Evolutionary demography of agricultural expansion in preindustrial northern Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263818
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Nov 7;281(1794):20141559
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-7-2014
Author
Samuli Helle
Jon E Brommer
Jenni E Pettay
Virpi Lummaa
Matti Enbuske
Jukka Jokela
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Nov 7;281(1794):20141559
Date
Nov-7-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history
Animal Husbandry - history
Animals
Anthropology, Cultural
Birth Rate - ethnology
Demography - history
Female
Finland
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
Humans
Male
Maternal Mortality - ethnology
Population Dynamics - history
Reindeer
Sociobiology
Abstract
A shift from nomadic foraging to sedentary agriculture was a major turning point in human evolutionary history, increasing our population size and eventually leading to the development of modern societies. We however lack understanding of the changes in life histories that contributed to the increased population growth rate of agriculturalists, because comparable individual-based reproductive records of sympatric populations of agriculturalists and foragers are rarely found. Here, we compared key life-history traits and population growth rate using comprehensive data from the seventieth to nineteenth century Northern Finland: indigenous Sami were nomadic hunter-fishers and reindeer herders, whereas sympatric agricultural Finns relied predominantly on animal husbandry. We found that agriculture-based families had higher lifetime fecundity, faster birth spacing and lower maternal mortality. Furthermore, agricultural Finns had 6.2% higher annual population growth rate than traditional Sami, which was accounted by differences between the subsistence modes in age-specific fecundity but not in mortality. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the most detailed demonstration yet of the demographic changes and evolutionary benefits that resulted from agricultural revolution.
Notes
Cites: Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996 Feb;99(2):259-748967327
Cites: Soc Hist Med. 1998 Aug;11(2):177-9611620426
Cites: Theor Popul Biol. 2013 Sep;88:68-7723867394
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1998 Dec 22;265(1413):2415-209921680
Cites: J Biosoc Sci. 1999 Jan;31(1):1-1610081233
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22;102(8):2838-4315701704
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Jan 7;272(1558):29-3715875567
Cites: World Archaeol. 2002 Jun;34(1):6-2516475305
Cites: Curr Anthropol. 2009 Oct;50(5):649-5520642153
Cites: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Jan;66(1):26-3720884848
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 12;108(15):6044-921444824
PubMed ID
25232134 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Gerontology crisis: to a question about primary health in the XXth century].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132519
Source
Adv Gerontol. 2011;24(1):11-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
V I Odin
Source
Adv Gerontol. 2011;24(1):11-23
Date
2011
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging
Geriatrics - history - trends
Health status
Health Status Indicators
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Population Dynamics - history
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Last decades the phenomenon of ageing population at the expense of reduction of birth rate and continuous growth of life expectancy is observed and moreover the life expectancy increase has almost linear character. In our opinion, this growth will stop the next years and there will be a considerable reduction of life expectancy. Roughly it should occur after 2010 year when the persons born in second half of the XXth century, i.e. after 1950 year, will start to enter advanced age. The reason of this drama consist in our opinion in catastrophic deterioration of primary health at persons born in second half of XXth century owing to action of "stop-evolution" factors and inhabitancy crisis. "Primary health" as definition in this text means combination of congenital predisposition to diseases (pathogenicity) with congenital possibility to autorecovery (sanogenicity). So the quality of primary health depends on features of the person genome and features of the person antenatal period of life including the delivery. Among factors of "stop-evolution" breaking natural selection consequently of sharp decrease in number of birth and fertility in population and as consequence worsening quality of congenital sanogenicity we consider first of all social factors. Among factors operating due to crisis of an inhabitancy and as consequence increase of congenital pathogenicity we consider anthropogenic factors (success of medicine, changes of food, technogenic factors). The analysis of own data of diabetic patients born during various periods of the XXth century (before 1908, in 1909-1923, 1924-1938, 1939-1953 yrs) has demonstrated the essential reduction of number of long-livers in a family (30,7; 35,0; 25,4; 27,8% accordingly), and on the other hand the sharp increase in frequency of cases of a family diabetes during the century (20,0; 5,9; 36,8; 64,7% accordingly). Thus, the action of some factors described by us has been already shown in first half of XXth century. To overcome the given "gerontology crisis" apparently, the interdisciplinary approach including joint researches with the subsequent development of recommendations, with participation not only gerontologists/geriatrists, but also pediatrists, andrologists/gynecologists, endocrinologists, genetics, ecologists and sociologists is necessary.
PubMed ID
21809615 View in PubMed
Less detail

Holocene radiocarbon-dated sites in northeastern Siberia: issues of temporal frequency, reservoir age, and human-nature interaction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101946
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2010;47(2):104-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Yaroslav V Kuzmin
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2010;47(2):104-15
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropology, Cultural - education - history
Civilization - history
Climate Change - history
Food Supply - history
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Housing - history
Humans
Oceans and Seas - ethnology
Population Dynamics - history
Radiometric Dating - history
Residence Characteristics - history
Siberia - ethnology
Abstract
The existing corpus of data on radiocarbon dates for Holocene sites in Northeastern Siberia was used as proxy to reconstruct the chronology of human occupation of the region. The problem of reservoir age correction in the Bering Sea region complicated this task and this issue needs to be solved in order to obtain more reliable age determinations for coastal archaeological sites. Using a chronology built after excluding the questionable dates from the database, the major patterns of human population dynamics and their possible correlation with climatic fluctuations were examined. No direct relationship appears to exist between these two processes. Additional archaeological and paleo environmental work needs to be carried out in this region of the North.
PubMed ID
21495285 View in PubMed
Less detail

27 records – page 1 of 3.